In 2023, 29 state legislative incumbents lost their re-election bids: 13 in general elections and 16 in primaries. This was more than in 2021 (22) but fewer than in 2019 (31).
In the four states that held elections – Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia – 19 Republican incumbents (10 in primaries and nine in general elections) lost re-election, followed by eight Democrats (six in primaries and two in general elections), and two independent or minor party incumbents (both in general elections).
These totals include data from both legislative chambers in the four states. Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia held elections on Nov. 7, 2023, while Louisiana held its election on Nov. 18.
- In Louisiana, two Republicans lost in the primary, while one Democrat and one Republican lost in the general.
- In Mississippi, six Republicans and one Democrat lost in the primary, while one independent or minor party incumbent lost in the general.
- In New Jersey, one Democrat lost in the primary, while six Republicans lost in the general.
- In Virginia, four Democrats and two Republicans lost in the primary, while one Democrat, two Republicans, and one independent or minor party incumbent lost in the general. As of Nov. 20, Virginia House District 82 remained too close to call.
Republican incumbents have lost at a higher rate than Democrats in general elections. Of the 243 Republican incumbents who advanced to the general election, nine (3.7%) lost re-election. For Democrats, two of the 178 who advanced (1.1%) have lost.
Of the four states that held elections this year, one had a Republican trifecta (Mississippi), one had a Democratic trifecta (New Jersey), and two were divided (Louisiana and Virginia).
Across these states, there were 578 seats up for election, 7.8% of the nationwide total. This was the most seats up for election in an odd-numbered year since 2011.