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Mandy Gillip

Mandy Gillip is a project director at Ballotpedia. Contact us at editor@ballotpedia.org.

Hawaii to hold congressional primaries August 8

The statewide primary election for Hawaii is on August 8, 2020. The filing deadline to run passed on June 2. Voters will elect one candidate from each of the state’s two congressional districts to serve in the U.S. House.

Candidates are competing to advance to the general election scheduled for November 3, 2020.

Hawaii’s primary is the 38th statewide primary to take place in the 2020 election cycle. The next statewide primaries will be held on August 11 in the following states:
• Connecticut
• Minnesota
• Vermont

• Wisconsin



Alaska State Rep. killed in airplane crash

Alaska House of Representatives District 30 member Gary Knopp (R) died in a plane crash near the city of Soldatna, Alaska, on August 1. The Juneau Empire reported that a plane piloted by Knopp collided with another plane just outside of the Soldatna airport.

Knopp was running for re-election in 2020, and his name will still appear on the ballot in the Republican primary on August 18. According to the Anchorage Daily News, if Knopp wins the primary election, Alaska Republican Party officials will name a replacement candidate in the general election scheduled on November 3, 2020. Knopp was first elected to represent District 30 in 2016.

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Four congressional races in Georgia move to runoffs on August 11

Four primary runoff elections are scheduled in three of Georgia’s congressional districts on August 11, 2020. Primary runoffs in Georgia were originally scheduled to be held on July 21 but were postponed to August 11 amid concerns surrounding the coronavirus pandemic. The statewide primary election was held on June 9, 2020.

To avoid a runoff, candidates for select federal and state offices in Georgia must receive a majority (50% +1) of the votes cast in the election. If no candidate receives a majority of the votes cast, a runoff between the top two candidates is required. The filing deadline to run in the primary election passed on March 6, 2020, and the general election is scheduled on November 3, 2020.

Candidates are in primary runoff elections in the following congressional districts:

U.S. House District 1

• Democrats Joyce Marie Griggs and Lisa Ring are facing off to determine who will challenge incumbent Earl Carter (R) in the general election.

U.S. House District 9
• The seat is open after incumbent Doug Collins (R), who was first elected in 2012, opted not to run for re-election this cycle. He has instead filed to run in a special election to the U.S. Senate to represent Georgia. Primary runoffs are being held for both the Democratic and Republican parties.
• Democratic primary runoff: Devin Pandy and Brooke Siskin are facing off to determine who will advance to the general election.

• Republican primary runoff: Andrew Clyde and Matt Gurtler are facing off for a spot in the general election.

U.S. House District 14
• The seat is open after incumbent Tom Graves (R), first elected in 2010, announced he would not seek re-election in 2020.

• Republicans John Cown and Marjorie Taylor Greene are running in the runoff to secure a spot in the general election where the winner will face Democrat Kevin Van Ausdal.

Ballotpedia is also covering Georgia elections in the following areas:
• U.S. Senate
• Public Service Commission
• State Senate
• State House
• State supreme court
• State court of appeals
• Local elections in DeKalb County and Fulton County
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Voters decide primaries in Maine, primary runoffs in Alabama, Texas

The primary election for Maine’s congressional seats took place on July 14, 2020. The filing deadline to run passed on March 16. Candidates competed to advance to the general election scheduled on November 3.

The following races were decided, meaning one or more candidates advanced to the general election, on primary election night:
• U.S. Senate – one seat

• U.S. House of Representatives – two seats

Maine uses a ranked-choice voting system (RCV), in which voters rank candidates by preference on their ballots. If a candidate wins a majority of first-preference votes, he or she is declared the winner. If no candidate wins a majority of first-preference votes, the candidate with the fewest first-preference votes is eliminated. First-preference votes cast for the failed candidate are eliminated, and the second-preference choices on those ballots are then tallied. A new tally is conducted to determine whether any candidate has won a majority of the adjusted votes. The process is repeated until a candidate wins an outright majority.

As of July 2020, Maine was the only state that had adopted RCV at the state level, although other states have adopted RCV at the municipal level or have adopted RCV but not yet implemented it.

Maine’s primary election was the 31st to take place in the 2020 election cycle. The next primary is on August 4 in Arizona.

Alabama and Texas held statewide primary runoffs on July 14.

The filing deadline to run in Alabama passed on November 8, 2019. To avoid a primary runoff in Alabama, a candidate had to win a majority of votes cast in the primary election. If no candidate won a majority of votes, the top two candidates advanced to the primary runoff. Alabama’s primary election was held on March 3, 2020. Three congressional seats advanced to primary runoffs in Alabama, including one race for the U.S. Senate and two for the U.S. House. All three of these races were decided on election night.

In Texas, the filing deadline to run for office passed on December 9, 2019. To avoid a primary runoff in Texas, a candidate had to win a majority of the votes in the primary election. If no candidate won a majority of votes, the top two candidates advanced to the primary runoff. Texas’ primary was held on March 3, 2020. Fifteen congressional offices—one U.S. Senate seat and 14 U.S. House seats—advanced to primary runoffs in Texas. All but two of those races were decided on election night.

Additional reading:


Voters to decide congressional primaries in Maine, and primary runoffs in Alabama, Texas

The statewide primary election for Maine is on July 14, 2020. The filing deadline passed on March 16. Candidates are running in elections for the following offices:

  • 1 member of the U.S. Senate
  • 2 members of the U.S. House of Representatives
  • 35 state Senate seats
  • 151 state House seats

Candidates are competing to advance to the general election scheduled for November 3, 2020. Maine uses a ranked-choice voting system (RCV), in which voters rank candidates by preference on their ballots. If a candidate wins a majority of first-preference votes, he or she is declared the winner. If no candidate wins a majority of first-preference votes, the candidate with the fewest first-preference votes is eliminated. First preference votes cast for the failed candidate are eliminated, lifting the second-preference choices indicated on those ballots. A new tally is conducted to determine whether any candidate has won a majority of the adjusted votes. The process is repeated until a candidate wins an outright majority. As of July 2020, Maine was the only state that had adopted RCV at the state level, although other states have adopted RCV at the municipal level or have adopted RCV but not yet implemented it.

Maine’s primary election is the 31st to take place in the 2020 election cycle. The next primary is on August 4 in Arizona.

Alabama and Texas are holding statewide primary runoffs on July 14. The filing deadline to run in Alabama passed on November 8, 2019. To avoid a primary runoff in Alabama, a candidate must win a majority of votes cast in the primary election. If no candidate wins a majority of votes, the top two candidates advance to the primary runoff election. Alabama’s primary election was held on March 3, 2020. Eight offices advanced to primary runoffs in Alabama, including races for U.S. Senate, U.S. House, the state court of criminal appeals, the Alabama State Board of Education, and several municipal-level races.

In Texas, the filing deadline to run for office passed on December 9, 2019. To avoid a primary runoff in Texas, a candidate must win a majority of the votes in the primary election. If no candidate wins a majority of votes, the top two candidates advance to the primary runoff election. Texas’ primary was held on March 3, 2020. Seventy-four offices advanced to primary runoffs in Texas including races for U.S. Senate, U.S. House, the state legislature, the state court of appeals, and the state railroad commission. Multiple municipal-level races also advanced to primary runoffs.

Additional reading:


Five states to hold congressional primaries on June 9

Congressional primary elections will be held in Georgia, North Dakota, Nevada, South Carolina, and West Virginia on June 9, 2020.

• In Georgia, voters will select one candidate to serve in the U.S. Senate and 14 candidates to serve in the U.S. House from the state’s 14 congressional districts. The candidate filing deadline for these races passed on March 6, 2020.

• In North Dakota, voters will select one candidate to serve in the U.S. House from the state’s one at-large congressional district. The candidate filing deadline for this race passed on April 6, 2020.

• In Nevada, voters will select four candidates to serve in the U.S. House from each of the state’s four congressional districts. The candidate filing deadline for these races passed on March 13, 2020.

• In South Carolina, voters will select one candidate to serve in the U.S. Senate and seven candidates to serve in the U.S. House from each of the state’s seven congressional districts. The candidate filing deadline for these races passed on March 30, 2020.

• In West Virginia, voters will select one candidate to serve in the U.S. Senate and three candidates to serve in the U.S. House from each of the state’s three congressional districts. The candidate filing deadline for these races passed on January 25, 2020.

Candidates are competing to advance to the general election scheduled for November 3, 2020.

Additional reading:



Voters decide Oregon’s state executive, legislative, judicial, and municipal primaries

The statewide primary for Oregon was held on May 19, 2020. Candidates competed to advance to the general election scheduled for November 3, 2020. Due to Oregon’s vote-by-mail system, vote totals are continuing to be reported. Candidates ran in elections for the following offices:

Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attorney General
• Secretary of State: Incumbent Bev Clarno (R) did not file for re-election. Kim Thatcher (R) advanced from the Republican primary to the general election. The Democratic primary remained too close to call based on the unofficial results as of May 21. The candidates on the ballot included Shemia Fagan, Mark Hass, and Jamie McLeod-Skinner.
• Treasurer: Incumbent Tobias Read (D) and Jeff Gudman (R) advanced from the primary to the general election.
• Attorney General: Incumbent Ellen Rosenblum (D) and Michael Cross (R) advanced from the primary to the general election.

Sixteen seats in the Oregon State Senate
• Each incumbent who filed for re-election advanced from the primary to the general election. In Districts 18, 21, 22, and 23 no Republican candidates filed in the primary. All Democratic primaries saw at least one candidate file and advance to the general election.

All 60 seats in the Oregon House of Representatives
• Each incumbent who filed for re-election advanced from the primary to the general election. In Districts 34, 42, 43, 45, 46, and 48 no Republican candidates filed in the primary election. All Democratic primaries saw at least one candidate file and advance to the general election.

Three Oregon Supreme Court justices
• Position 1: Incumbent Thomas Balmer won re-election outright in the nonpartisan primary after winning 71.5% of the vote. He defeated Van Pounds.
• Position 4: Incumbent Chris Garrett was the only candidate to file in the primary. The election was canceled, and Garrett automatically advanced to the general election.
• Position 7: Incumbent Martha L. Walters was the only candidate to file in the primary. The election was canceled, and Walters automatically advanced to the general election.

Four Oregon Court of Appeals justices
• Position 1: Incumbent Josephine H. Mooney was the only candidate to file in the nonpartisan primary. The election was canceled, and Mooney automatically advanced to the general election.
• Position 9 (special election): Incumbent Jacqueline Kamins was the only candidate to file in the primary. The election was canceled, and Kamins automatically advanced to the general election.
• Position 11: This race remained too close to call based on the unofficial results as of May 21. The primary race included incumbent Joel S. DeVore and Kyle Krohn.
• Position 12: Incumbent Erin C. Lagesen was the only candidate to file in the primary. The election was canceled, and Lagesen automatically advanced to the general election.
• Position 13: Incumbent Douglas L. Tookey was the only candidate to file in the primary. The election was canceled, and Tookey automatically advanced to the general election.

Ballotpedia also covered local elections in the following areas:
• Portland: The primary for mayor could not be called based on the unofficial results as of May 21.
• Multnomah County: The primary for Multnomah County Commission Districts 1, 3, and 4 could not be called based on the unofficial results as of May 21.

Oregon exclusively uses a vote-by-mail system. Voters may return their ballots to the office of the county clerk by mail or in person. Because of this system, there is no need for explicit absentee or early voting procedures.

Oregon’s primary was the 10th statewide primary to take place in the 2020 election cycle. The next statewide primaries will be held on June 2 in the following states:
• Idaho
• Indiana
• Iowa
• Maryland
• Montana
• New Mexico
• Pennsylvania
• South Dakota

Additional reading:



Voters to decide state executive, legislative, and judicial primaries in Oregon

The statewide primary election for Oregon is on May 19, 2020. The filing deadline to run passed on March 10. Candidates are running in elections for the following offices:
• Secretary of State
• Treasurer
• Attorney General
• 16 seats in the Oregon State Senate
• All 60 seats in the Oregon House of Representatives
• Three Oregon Supreme Court justices
• Four Oregon Court of Appeals justices
• Ballotpedia is also covering local elections in Portland and Multnomah County.

Candidates are competing to advance to the general election scheduled for November 3, 2020.

Oregon exclusively uses a vote-by-mail system. Voters may return their ballots to the office of the county clerk by mail or in person. Because of this system, there is no need for explicit absentee or early voting procedures.

Oregon’s primary is the 10th statewide primary to take place in the 2020 election cycle. The next statewide primaries will be held on June 2 in the following states:
• Idaho
• Indiana
• Iowa
• Maryland
• Montana
• New Mexico
• Pennsylvania
• South Dakota

Additional reading:



Deadline passes for Massachusetts candidates to file nomination petitions with local officials

On May 5, the local filing deadline passed to run for statewide elected offices in Massachusetts. Candidates filed for the following offices:

  • One U.S. Senate seat
  • Nine U.S. House seats
  • Eight seats on the Massachusetts Governor’s Council
  • All 40 seats in the Massachusetts State Senate
  • All 160 seats in the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Ballotpedia is also covering local elections in Suffolk County.

To appear on the ballot in Massachusetts, prospective candidates must submit nomination papers for certification to the registrars of the cities or towns in which signatures were collected and to the Secretary of the Commonwealth. The local filing deadline must occur four weeks prior to the candidate’s second filing deadline with the Secretary of the Commonwealth. In 2020, the local-level filing deadline was May 5, and the state-level filing deadline is June 2.

The primary is scheduled for September 1, and the general election is scheduled for November 3, 2020.

Massachusetts’ statewide filing deadline was the 37th to take place in the 2020 election cycle. The next statewide filing deadline is on May 8 in Michigan.

Massachusetts has a divided government, with no trifecta status for either major party. A state government trifecta exists when one political party simultaneously holds the governor’s office and both state legislative chambers.

Additional reading:


Trump has appointed second-most federal judges through May 1 of a president’s fourth year

Donald Trump has appointed and the Senate has confirmed 194 Article III federal judges through May 1, 2020, his fourth year in office. This is the second-most Article III judicial appointments made through this point in all presidencies since Jimmy Carter (D). The Senate had confirmed 208 of Carter’s appointees at this point in his term.

The average number of federal judges appointed by a president through May 1 of their fourth year in office is 170.

The median number of Supreme Court justices appointed is two. Along with President Trump, Presidents Barack Obama (D), Bill Clinton (D), and George H.W. Bush (R) had each appointed two Supreme Court justices at this point in their first terms. Ronald Reagan (R) had appointed one, while Carter and George W. Bush (R) had not appointed any.

The median number of United States Court of Appeals appointees is 30. Trump appointed the most with 51, while Reagan appointed the least with 25. Trump’s 51 appointments make up 28% of the total 179 judgeships across the courts of appeal.

The median number of United States District Court appointees is 138. Carter appointed the most with 158, and Reagan appointed the fewest with 109. Trump has appointed 139 district court judges so far. Those appointments make up 21% of the 677 judgeships across the district courts.

Article III federal judges are appointed for life terms by the president of the United States and confirmed by the U.S. Senate per Article III of the United States Constitution. Article III judges include judges on the: Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. courts of appeal, U.S. district courts, and the Court of International Trade.

To read more about the comparison of Article III federal judicial appointments by president, click here.


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