Tagballot measures

2022 statewide ballot measures written at graduate school reading level

The ballot language for the 140 statewide ballot measures on the ballot in 38 states in 2022 is written at an average reading level of 19 (graduate school reading level), up from 18 in 2021. Ballotpedia identified 66 measures with a ballot summary that was set to appear alongside the ballot question on the ballot. The average grade level for ballot summaries was 18 years of education.

Ballotpedia’s readability report analyzes what level of education voters would need to understand the ballot titles and summaries of statewide ballot measures using Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). A readability score produces a score equivalent to the estimated number of years of U.S. education required to understand a text. Measurements used in calculating readability scores include the number of syllables, words, and sentences in a text. Other factors, such as the complexity of an idea in a text, are not reflected in readability scores.

Here are some highlights from the annual report:

Title and summary grades
In 2022, the measure with the highest grade level score was Kentucky Amendment 1 with a title grade level of 64. The average ballot title grade for all measures in a single state averaged together ranged from 7 in Iowa to 44 in Kentucky.

Thirty-six (36) measures had ballot summaries with a grade level score greater than the ballot title, with differences ranging from 1 year to 16 years.

Citizen-initiated measures received an average title grade of 17 years of education, and referred measures received an average title grade of 20 years. The average ballot title grade was highest for ballot titles written by initiative proponents (21) and state boards (20). The three automatically referred constitutional convention questions, which take their ballot titles directly from the state constitution, had the lowest title grade by author at 9.

Word count
The average ballot title word count was 66 words. The ballot measure with the longest ballot title was Tennessee Constitutional Amendment 2, with 456 words. The ballot measure with the shortest ballot title was Florida Amendment 2, which would abolish the state’s Constitution Revision Commission, with five words.

Historical readability scores

Ballotpedia has conducted an annual readability report since 2017. Between 2017 and 2022, the average title grade was 18 years of education. The year with the lowest ballot title grade was 2019 with 15 years of education, and the years with the highest were 2017 and 2020 with 20 years of education. The average ballot summary grade was lower than the ballot title grade for every year except 2019, where both were 15 years of education.

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Signature costs for ballot initiatives increased in 2022

In 2022, ballot initiative campaigns spent $118.29 million to collect signatures for 29 initiatives in 12 states. The average cost-per-required-signature (CPRS) in 2022 was $12.70, an increase from $8.09 in 2020, $6.52 in 2018, and $6.93 in 2016.

On November 8, voters in 37 states will decide 132 statewide ballot measures, of which, 30 were placed on the ballot through successful initiative petition drives.

Note: Ballotpedia was unable to calculate signature gathering costs for South Dakota Amendment D due to how expenditures are reported on the state’s campaign finance website. Ballotpedia contacted the sponsoring campaign, South Dakotans Decide Healthcare. As this data is unavailable, South Dakota Amendment D is excluded from the report.

An initiative is a proposed law that people collect signatures for to put on the ballot for a statewide vote. Signature requirements such as the number of signatures required, maximum circulation periods, and other requirements vary by state.

Campaigns spend funds to collect signatures, hire signature-gathering companies, utilize unpaid volunteers, or use a mix of both. States have different initiative signature requirements and different population sizes, resulting in varied signature drive costs across states.

Ballotpedia uses two methods to measure the cost of a citizen-initiated ballot measure petition drive:

  • Total cost: the total money spent on gathering the required signatures to put an initiative on the ballot
  • Cost-per-required signature (CPRS): the total cost divided by the number of signatures required to qualify the measure for the ballot

CPRS measures the costs based on the number of signatures required. CPRS allows for comparisons of signature costs within a state and between states. If a campaign spends $1 million on its petition drive and the state’s signature requirement is 100,000, the CPRS is $10.00. In other words, the campaign spent $10.00 per required signature to qualify the initiative for the ballot.

The number of citizen initiatives that qualified for the even-numbered year ballot decreased 61% from 2016 to 2022, with 76 initiatives appearing on the ballot in 2016 and 30 initiatives appearing on the ballot in 2022. While there was a decrease in the number of initiatives appearing on the ballot, the cumulative cost of signature gathering increased over this period.

The average total petition drive cost for 2022 was $4.08 million, an increase of 297% compared to 2016, when the average petition drive cost was $1.03 million. In 2020, the average total petition cost was $2.06 million. In 2018, the average total cost was $1.13 million.

In 2022, the measure with the highest CPRS was Arizona Proposition 209. Sponsors of the measure, Arizonans Fed Up With Failing Healthcare, hired Fieldworks LLC to collect signatures for the petition to qualify this measure for the ballot. A total of $6.05 million was spent to collect the 237,645 valid signatures required to put this measure before voters, resulting in a total cost per required signature (CPRS) of $25.44.

Ballotpedia identified 15 petition companies used by initiative campaigns in 2022. Advanced Micro Targeting was the most-hired petition company leading to successful signature drives in 2022, with campaigns from five states (Arizona, Arkansas, Nebraska, Nevada, and North Dakota) qualifying initiatives for the ballot using the company’s signature-gathering services.



Ten statewide measures are on the ballot in Arizona

On November 8, Arizona voters will decide on 10 statewide ballot measures. This is the highest number of measures on the Arizona ballot since 2010, when there were 11 measures on the ballot. In 2020, the previous even-year election, there were two measures on the ballot, both of which were approved.

This year’s measures are below:

  • Proposition 128: Allows the Legislature to amend or repeal voter-approved ballot measures that contain provisions ruled unconstitutional or invalid by the state or federal supreme court.
  • Proposition 129: Requires citizen-initiated ballot measures to embrace a single subject.
  • Proposition 130: Allows the Legislature to set certain property tax exemption amounts and qualifications rather than determining details in the constitution.
  • Proposition 131: Creates the office of Lieutenant Governor, a position which would be elected on a joint ticket with the governor and succeed the governor in the case of a vacancy.
  • Proposition 132: Requires a three-fifths (60%) supermajority vote to pass ballot initiatives (both statutes and constitutional amendments) and legislatively referred amendments that would approve taxes.
  • Proposition 209: Limits interest rates for debt from healthcare services and increases the value of certain property and earnings exempt from debt collection processes.
  • Proposition 211: Requires that persons or entities that make an independent expenditure of $50,000 or more on a statewide campaign or $25,000 or more on a local campaign must disclose the names of the money’s original sources, which would be defined as the persons or businesses that earned the money being spent.
  • Proposition 308: Repeals provisions of Proposition 300 (2006), thus allowing in-state tuition for certain non-citizen residents.
  • Proposition 309: Requires date of birth and voter identification number for mail-in ballots and eliminates two-document alternative to photo ID for in-person voting.
  • Proposition 310: Creates a 0.1% sales tax for 20 years to provide funding for Arizona’s fire districts.

Two measures—Proposition 209 and Proposition 211—were referred to the ballot by citizens through the initiative process, while the rest were referred to the ballot by the Arizona State Legislature. Out of the eight measures referred to the ballot by the state legislature, five would amend Arizona’s constitution, while three would amend state statute.

Ballotpedia has identified five campaigns in support or opposition of the measures. Propositions 129, 209, 211, 308, 309, and 310 have a political action committee (PAC) supporting the measure, while Propositions 128, 129, and 132 have a PAC opposing the measure.

The contribution amounts of each campaign are below:

  • Arizonans Fed Up With Failing Healthcare, which supports Proposition 209, has raised $8 million in support of the measure while spending $7.85 million.
  • Voters’ Right to Know, which supports Proposition 211, has raised $1.36 million in support of the measure while spending $1.31 million.
  • Yes on 308, which supports Proposition 308, has raised $1.21 million in support of the measure, while spending $1.16 million.
  • Arizonans for Voter ID, which supports Proposition 309, has raised $110,563 in support of the measure while spending $70,444.
  • Arizonans for Public Safety Yes on 310, which supports Proposition 310, has raised $440,825 in support of the measure while spending $352,952.
  • Make it Simple Arizona, which supports Proposition 129, has not yet submitted campaign finance reports.
  • Will of the People, which opposes Proposition 128, Proposition 129, and Proposition 132, has raised $324,992 in support of the measure while spending $104,962.

In total, the campaigns have raised $11.4 million and spent $10.8 million. Arizonans Fed Up With Failing Healthcare has raised the most amount of money, with the top donor, SEIU United Healthcare Workers, contributing $4.03 million in cash and in-kind contributions.

In Arizona, between 1985 and 2020, a total of 168 ballot measures appeared on statewide ballots. Eighty-nine ballot measures were approved, and 79 ballot measures were defeated.



Bills introduced to change the initiative process increased in 2022, but those enacted decreased

Bills introduced to change the initiative process increased in 2022. However, fewer bills have been enacted in 2022 compared to 2021. The number of legislatively referred ballot measures related to initiatives also increased in 2022 compared to 2020.

In 2022, Ballotpedia tracked 231 bills regarding ballot measure laws. Seventeen of these bills were passed and signed into law. Most (187) did not come to a vote before legislative sessions adjourned or were defeated. In 2021, for comparison, Ballotpedia tracked fewer bills—226—but 36 were enacted.

Of the bills enacted in 2022, one law, in particular, could have an effect on signature drives. Florida HB 921, signed on April 6, prohibited out-of-state donors from giving more than $3,000 to support or oppose an initiative during the signature-gathering phase. In June, a federal judge blocked the bill.

In 2021, legislatures passed bills in Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Montana, and Utah regarding signature drives, such as increasing distribution requirements or prohibiting paid circulators. While the number of enacted laws decreased from 2021 to 2022, the number of legislatively referred measures related to the initiative process increased from two in 2018 to four in 2020 to six in 2022. 

In November, voters will decide on five measures—four constitutional amendments and one statute —related to the initiative process. Legislatures voted to place these measures on the ballot. Two of the measures were put on the ballot during 2022 legislative sessions, and the other three were put on the ballot during 2021 legislative sessions.

  1. Arkansas Issue 2: Requires a 60% vote to approve ballot initiatives
  2. Arizona Proposition 128: Allows the Legislature to amend or repeal voter-approved ballot measures that contain provisions ruled unconstitutional by the Arizona Supreme Court or U.S. Supreme Court
  3. Arizona Proposition 129: Requires citizen-initiated ballot measures to embrace a single subject
  4. Arizona Proposition 132: Requires a 60% vote to pass ballot measures to approve taxes
  5. Colorado Proposition GG: Requires a table showing changes in income tax owed for average taxpayers in certain brackets to be included in the ballot title for initiated measures

In June, voters in South Dakota rejected Amendment C, which would have required a three-fifths vote of approval for ballot measures that increase taxes or fees or require the state to appropriate $10 million or more in the first five fiscal years.

In 2020, legislatures placed four measures on the ballot to change initiative processes. There was also one initiative in Florida to require that constitutional amendments be passed at two elections. Measures were defeated in Arkansas, Florida, and North Dakota. In Montana, voters approved two amendments to establish the existing signature distribution requirements for citizen-initiated measures as constitutional law.



Five states to decide in November on legalizing recreational marijuana

In November, five more states will decide on marijuana legalization ballot measures. In the central U.S., voters in Arkansas, Missouri, North Dakota, and South Dakota will consider citizen-initiated measures to legalize marijuana. These four states are Republican trifectas. In Maryland, which has a divided government, the state Legislature voted to put the issue before voters.

Arkansas Issue 4: Amends the constitution to legalize the possession and use of up to one ounce of marijuana for persons who are at least 21 years old, enacts a 10% tax on marijuana sales, and requires the state Alcoholic Beverage Control Division to develop rules to regulate marijuana businesses.

Maryland Question 4: Amends the constitution to legalize marijuana for persons who are at least 21 years old beginning in July 2023 and directs the Maryland State Legislature to pass laws for the use, distribution, regulation, and taxation of marijuana.

Missouri Amendment 3: Amends the constitution tolegalize marijuana for persons who are 21 years old or older, allows individuals convicted of non-violent marijuana-related offenses to petition to be released from incarceration and/or have their records expunged, and enacts a 6% tax on the sale of marijuana.

North Dakota Statutory Measure 2: Amends state law to legalize the use and possession of up to one ounce of marijuana for persons who are 21 years old, allows individuals to grow up to three marijuana plants, and requires the Department of Health and Human Services to establish rules regulating marijuana by October 1, 2023.

South Dakota Initiated Measure 27: Amends state law to legalize marijuana for persons who are 21 years old and allows adults to possess one ounce or less of marijuana.

Heading into November, marijuana was legal in 19 states and D.C. Of those 19 states, 11 and D.C. had legalized marijuana through the ballot initiative process. One state, New Jersey, passed a legislatively referred measure.

Twenty-three states could legalize marijuana through the initiative process. Initiatives were used to legalize marijuana in 11 of the 23 states, meaning in twelve states where marijuana is currently illegal, the ballot initiative process could be used to legalize marijuana. In addition to the four states featuring marijuana initiatives in 2022, Oklahoma will vote on marijuana legalization in 2024. Marijuana legalization initiatives targeting the 2023 and 2024 ballots have also been filed in Ohio, Wyoming, Florida, and Nebraska and could be filed in Idaho, Mississippi, Nebraska, and Utah.

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San Francisco voters to decide 14 local ballot measures on November 8

Voters in San Francisco will decide 14 local ballot measures on November 8. Four measures are citizen initiatives and ten were referred to the ballot by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. The measures address topics such as the ability to use vehicles in the JFK Promenade, parking in Golden Gate Park, expediting housing projects, moving city elections to even-numbered years, and more.

Summaries of the measures are below:

Proposition A: Allows city employees who retired before November 6, 1996, to receive a supplemental cost of living adjustment to their pensions whether or not the retirement system is fully funded and allows the Retirement Board to enter into an individual employment contract with its executive director

Proposition B: Eliminates the Department of Sanitation and Streets and transfers its duties to the Department of Public Works and retains the Public Works Commission and the Sanitation and Streets Commission

Proposition C: Creates a Homelessness Oversight Commission to oversee the Department of Homelessness and Supportive Housing and requires the city controller to conduct audits of services for people experiencing homelessness

Proposition D: Expedites the approval of certain housing projects and removes the Board of Supervisors’ approval as a requirement for certain housing projects using city property or city financing

Proposition E: Expedites the approval of certain housing projects and continues requiring the Board of Supervisors’ approval for affordable housing projects using city property or city financing

Proposition F: Renews the Library Preservation Fund for 25 years, allows the city to temporarily freeze the annual minimum library funding amount when the city expects a budget deficit over $300 million, and increases the minimum hours the main library and its 27 branches must be open per week

Proposition G: Creates the Student Success Fund to provide additional grants to San Francisco Unified School District through 2038, with the city allocating $11 million to the Fund in 2024, $35 million in 2025, and $45 million in 2026

Proposition H: Changes elections for mayor, sheriff, district attorney, city attorney, and treasurer from odd-numbered years to even-numbered years (in November of presidential election years) and changes signature requirements for ballot initiatives from 5% of votes cast for the mayor to 2% of registered voters

Proposition I: Allows private motor vehicles on John F. Kennedy Drive and connector streets except from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Sundays and legal holidays as well as on Saturdays from April through September

Proposition J: Upholds an ordinance adopted in May 2022 closing portions of John F. Kennedy Drive and certain connector streets in Golden Gate Park to use the area as open recreation spaces

Proposition L: Continues an existing one-half cent sales tax through 2053 for transportation project funding and allows the Transportation Authority to issue up to $1.91 billion in bonds for transportation projects

Proposition M: Allows the city to levy a tax on owners of vacant residential units in buildings with three or more units if the units have been vacant for more than 182 days in a year, at a rate between $2,500–5,000 per vacant unit, continuing through 2053, and dedicating tax revenue for rent subsidies and certain housing entities

Proposition N: Allows the city to use public funds to acquire, operate, or subsidize public parking in the underground parking garage in Golden Gate Park, dissolves the Golden Gate Park Concourse Authority, and transfers management of the garage to the Recreation and Park Commission

Proposition O: Levies a parcel tax at varying rates between $150–4,000 per parcel, beginning on July 1, 2023, and ending on June 30, 2043, with funding appropriated to the City College of San Francisco for student and workforce development programs

Proposition K, a proposed citizen initiative sponsored by the Tenants and Owners Development Corporation (TODCO), was removed from the ballot in a Superior Court ruling at the request of proponents. Sponsors referred to the measure as the Tax Amazon for Guaranteed Income proposition and designed it to levy a tax on e-commerce corporations making $2.5 million or more from online sales. John Eberling of TODCO said, “We are very strongly committed to taxing wealth and taxing the corporate greed that is going on in America and Amazon is one of the very worst. We heard they were putting out word that they wouldn’t be subject to the tax increase and that obviously was not the idea. After we heard that this was going to apply to small businesses to an extent that we did not intend, and because we were concerned Amazon was going to slip away, we thought it was better to pull it away and re-draft it so it’s airtight with regard to companies like Amazon.”

In 2022, Ballotpedia is covering local ballot measures that appear on the ballot for voters within the 100 largest cities in the U.S., within state capitals, and throughout California. You can review the coverage scope of the local ballot measures project here.

Seven statewide ballot propositions are on the statewide ballot in California. The state legislature voted to refer a constitutional amendment to provide a right to reproductive freedom to the ballot. Six citizen-initiated measures qualified for the ballot related to sports betting, K-12 art and music education funding, dialysis clinic requirements, income tax to fund zero-emission vehicle projects, and a flavored tobacco products ban.

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Colorado voters to decide on three alcohol-related ballot initiatives in November

Coloradans will see three initiated measures – Initiatives 96, 121, and 122 – on the November ballot related to alcohol. The secretary of state announced that the measures qualified for the ballot on August 26. To qualify for the ballot, sponsors needed to submit 124,632 valid signatures for each proposal.

Initiative 96 would incrementally increase the number of retail liquor store licenses an individual may own or hold a share in from three to 20 in 2036 and an unlimited number in 2037. Coloradans for Consumer Choice and Retail Fairness, the campaign behind the measure, received $2.2 million and has the support of Colorado Fine Wines & Spirits LLC, U.S. Rep. David Trone (D-Maryland), and his brother who co-owns Total Wine with him, Robert Trone. Sponsors for Initiative 96 submitted 225,440 signatures and 149,799 were projected to be valid.

Initiatives 121 and 122, sponsored by Wine in Grocery Stores, received $3.97 million from DoorDash and InstaCart. Initiative 121 would create a new fermented malt beverage and wine retailer license to allow grocery stores, convenience stores, and other businesses that are licensed to sell beer to also sell wine. Initiative 122 would allow retail establishments licensed to sell alcohol for off-site consumption to offer a delivery service or allow for a third-party alcohol delivery service.

For Initiative 121, 192,017 signatures were submitted and 142,697 were projected to be valid. For Initiative 122, 185,790 signatures were submitted and 139,312 were projected to be valid.

The initiatives are among 11 ballot measures that Colorado voters will decide in November. Three other citizen-initiated measures were certified for the ballot. Additionally, the Colorado State Legislature referred three constitutional amendments and two statutory measures to the ballot.

From 1985 through 2020, an average of nine measures appeared on the statewide ballot during even-numbered years in Colorado. The approval rate for measures on the ballot in even-numbered years was 47.34%.



Campaign to repeal a Massachusetts law related to driver’s license applications submits signatures ahead of the August 24 deadline

Fair and Secure Massachusetts submitted signatures on August 18 for a veto referendum to repeal House Bill 4805 (H4805), a bill to prohibit registrars from inquiring about an applicant’s citizenship or immigration status when applying for driver’s licenses and motor vehicle registrations.

On June 9, 2022, the Massachusetts General Court overrode Gov. Charles Baker’s (R) veto. Instead of citizenship or immigration information, the bill allows registrars to accept two documents that prove the date of birth and identity of the applicant, including foreign passports, birth certificates, or consular identification documents. Massachusetts requires a two-thirds majority in the General Court to override a veto. At the time of the override vote, Democrats held such a majority.

In the Senate, the override passed by a 32-8 margin, with 32 Democrats voting to override and five Democrats joining all three Republicans to sustain Baker’s veto. The House voted 119-36 to override the veto, with all 111 Democrats voting to override and eight Democrats joining all 28 Republicans to sustain the veto.

On June 13, 2022, Maureen Maloney and Kevin Dube filed paperwork with the Office of Campaign and Political Finance to create the Fair And Secure Massachusetts committee. The veto referendum was cleared for signature gathering on June 27. Among the sponsors of the referendum were former state Sen. Dean Tran (R), Rep. Marc Lombardo (R), state Senate candidate Cecilia Calabrese (R), and Rep. Colleen Garry (D).

Maureen Maloney, one of the sponsors, said, “I do not think that we should be rewarding people for being in the country illegally. I think the RMV [Registry of Motor Vehicles] is not equipped to properly vet people coming to the United States from over 100 different countries.”

Rep. Tricia Farley-Bouvier (D), who supports H4805, said, “We know in other states that have passed this bill, passed a form of driver’s licenses for immigrants, that hit-and-run accidents go down by 10 percent.”

Fair and Secure Massachusetts submitted around 40,120 signatures on Aug. 18 and was planning to continue gathering additional signatures before the final deadline. In Massachusetts, the number of signatures required to qualify a veto referendum for the ballot is equal to 1.5% of the total votes cast for governor in the most recent gubernatorial election, which equals 40,120 valid signatures. The signature deadline is August 24.

Voters in Massachusetts last decided on a veto referendum in 2018. Question 3 concerned a law prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity. It was upheld by 67.82% of voters.

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Colorado to vote on housing programs initiative in November

Colorado voters will decide on an initiative to create a new State Affordable Housing Fund in November. Proponents submitted 230,748 signatures for the measure on August 4, 2022. On August 19, the Colorado secretary of state’s office announced that the initiative qualified for the ballot. Through random sample verification, 149,072 were projected to be valid. To qualify for the ballot, 124,631 valid signatures were required.

The initiative, sponsored by Coloradans for Affordable Housing Now, would dedicate one-tenth of one percent (0.01%) of state income tax revenue to the State Affordable Housing Fund.

Colorado has a flat income tax rate of 4.55% of federal taxable income. An initiative also on the November 2022 ballot would decrease the rate to 4.40% beginning January 1, 2022.

Under the initiative, affordable housing would be defined as rental housing that is “affordable to a household with an annual income of at or below 60% of the area median income, and that costs the household less than 30% of its monthly income,” and “for-sale housing that could be purchased by a household with an annual income of at or below 100% of the area median income, for which the mortgage payment costs the household less than 30% of its monthly income.”

Funds would be used to:

  • provide grants to local governments and loans to nonprofit organizations to acquire and maintain land for the development of affordable housing;
  • create an affordable housing equity program to make equity investments in multi-family rental units to ensure that rent is no more than 30% of a household’s income;
  • create a concessionary debt program to provide debt financing for low- and middle-income multi-family rental developments and existing affordable housing projects;
  • create an affordable home ownership program providing down-payment assistance for homebuyers meeting certain income requirements;
  • create a grant program for local governments to increase capacity to process land use, permitting, and zoning applications for housing projects; and
  • create a program to provide rental assistance, housing vouchers, and other case management for persons experiencing homelessness.

For fiscal year 2022-23, $135 million was estimated to be allocated to the State Affordable Housing Fund. For the first full fiscal year, FY 2023-24, the Colorado Legislative Council Staff estimated that $270 million would be transferred from the state general fund to the State Affordable Housing Fund. The initiative would authorize the state to retain and spend these funds as a voter-approved revenue change above the state’s TABOR limits, which it would otherwise be required to refund to taxpayers.

The Colorado Taxpayer’s Bill of Rights (TABOR) requires voter approval for all new taxes, tax rate increases, extensions of expiring taxes, mill levy increases, valuation for property assessment increases, or tax policy changes resulting in increased tax revenue. TABOR limits the amount of money the state of Colorado can take in and spend. It limits the annual increase for some state revenue to inflation plus the percentage change in state population. Any money collected above this limit is refunded to taxpayers unless the voters allow the state to spend it.

Coloradans for Affordable Housing Now has raised $2.8 million from donors including Gary Ventures Inc., the National Association of Realtors, Colorado Low Income Housing Campaign, and Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver.

Brian Rossbert, executive director of Housing Colorado said, “The people of Colorado have spoken, and they want to make Colorado affordable. Too many Coloradans can no longer afford to live in the neighborhoods where they set down roots. That’s forcing families to make difficult relocation decisions, robbing our communities of essential services and intensifying our homelessness crisis. This measure is desperately needed if we want future generations of Coloradans to thrive.”

Natalie Menten, a TABOR Foundation board member, said, “If this passes, the number on that TABOR refund check is going to be smaller. And potentially in some years, there won’t be a check coming to you because this will take all of it. I oppose this on multiple levels. Many of us don’t want to live in downtown. But what this measure is driving us to do is get more high-density housing and that is not what I want to see more of, frankly.”

Seven other measures are currently certified to appear on the November ballot in Colorado. Three initiatives concerning alcohol in grocery and convenience stores, alcohol delivery, and liquor store licenses are in the process of signature verification and could qualify for the ballot.

From 1985 through 2020, an average of nine measures appeared on the statewide ballot during even-numbered years in Colorado. The approval rate for measures on the ballot in even-numbered years was 47.34%.



Campaigns for four ballot initiatives in Colorado submitted signatures by August 8 deadline and could appear on November ballot

Campaigns for four Colorado ballot initiatives submitted signatures by the August 8 signature deadline. Three of the initiatives would change state alcohol laws, and one initiative concerns revenue for housing projects. To qualify for the ballot, sponsors of each initiative needed to submit 124,632 valid signatures.

Initiative 108 is being sponsored by Coloradans for Affordable Housing Now, which has raised $2.8 million and is supported by the National Association of Realtors, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, and Gary Ventures, Inc. The initiative would dedicate a percentage of federal income tax revenues, estimated at $300 million per year, to housing projects including “affordable housing financing programs that will reduce rents, purchase land for affordable housing development, build assets for renters, support affordable homeownership, serve persons experiencing homelessness, and support local planning capacity.”

Initiative 96 is being sponsored by Coloradans for Consumer Choice and Retail Fairness, which has raised $2.2 million and is supported by Colorado Fine Wines & Spirits LLC, U.S. Representative David Trone (D-Maryland), and his brother who co-owns Total Wine with him, Robert Trone, who each donated around $900,000. The initiative would incrementally increase the number of retail liquor store licenses an individual may own or hold a share in, as follows:

  1. up to eight licenses by December 31, 2026;
  2. up to 13 licenses by December 31, 2031;
  3. up to 20 licenses by December 31, 2036; and
  4. an unlimited number of licenses on or after January 1, 2037.

Currently, retailers can open a maximum of three liquor stores in Colorado.

Initiatives 121 and 122 were sponsored by Wine in Grocery Stores, which has raised $3.97 million from DoorDash and InstaCart. Initiative 121 would create a new fermented malt beverage and wine retailer license to allow grocery stores, convenience stores, and other businesses that are licensed to sell beer to also sell wine. Initiative 122 would allow retail establishments licensed to sell alcohol for off-site consumption to offer a delivery service or provide for a third-party alcohol delivery service.

Seven measures are currently certified to appear on the November ballot in Colorado.

From 1985 through 2020, an average of nine measures appeared on the statewide ballot during even-numbered years in Colorado. The approval rate for measures on the ballot in even-numbered years was 47.34%.