President Joe Biden (D) signed a bill ending the national coronavirus state of emergency on April 10, 2023.
The House voted to approve the bill 229-197 on Feb. 1, 2023, and the Senate voted to approve the bill 68-23 on March 29, 2023. Rep. Paul Gosar (R-Ariz.) introduced the bill on January 9, 2023. Biden had previously said he planned to end the state of emergency through executive action in May 2023.
The national coronavirus state of emergency began on March 1, 2020. Donald Trump (R) issued the proclamation on March 13, 2020, making the state of emergency retroactively begin on March 1 of that year.
The president can declare national states of emergency under the authority of the National Emergencies Act. During a national state of emergency, additional powers and authorities are granted to the executive branch, often through the provisions of other laws.
For example, the Biden administration enacted its student loan debt cancellation plan under the HEROES Act of 2003, which provides the executive branch authority to “waive or modify any statutory or regulatory provision applicable to the student financial assistance programs” in a national state of emergency. The student loan debt cancellation is paused pending a United States Supreme Court ruling.
In addition to the coronavirus state of emergency, Trump issued at least 10 other national states of emergency during his tenure related to international affairs, government ethics, and elections. Biden has issued at least seven national states of emergency relating to international affairs.