Author

Juan Garcia de Paredes

Juan Garcia de Paredes is a staff writer at Ballotpedia. Contact us at editor@ballotpedia.org.

Analysis of major party candidates on the primary ballot for U.S. Senate and U.S. House seats in 2022

In 2022, 2,422 major party candidates appeared on the primary ballot for 474 seats in the U.S. Congress. The seats included 34 U.S. Senate seats, the seats of all 435 U.S. Representatives, and the seats of five of the six non-voting delegates to the U.S. House.

Of the 2,422 candidates who appeared on the primary ballot, 989, or 40.83%, were Democrats, and 1,433, or 59.17%, were Republicans. 

In the U.S. Senate: 

  • There were 304 major party candidates on the primary ballot this year, including 119 Democrats, or 39.14% of all candidates who ran, and 185 Republicans, or 60.86% of all candidates who ran.
  • The 119 Democrats who appeared on the primary ballot this year were 11 more than the 108 who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and 33 more than the 86 who appeared in 2018.
  • The 185 Republicans who appeared on the ballot were 62 more than the 123 who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and 44 more than the 141 who appeared in 2018.

  • The percentage of major party candidates this year who identified as Democrats was lower than in 2020, when 46.75% of major party candidates did, but higher than in 2018, when 37.89% did.
  • Conversely, the percentage of major party candidates who identified as Republicans this year was higher than in 2020, when 53.25% did, but lower than in 2018, when 62.11% did.

  • There were 3.5 Democratic candidates on the ballot per U.S. Senate seat this year. That’s more than the 3.27 Democrats per seat who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and the 2.61 Democrats per seat who appeared in 2018.
  • There were 5.44 Republican candidates on the ballot per U.S. Senate seat in 2022. That’s more than the 3.73 Republicans per seat who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and the 4.27 Republicans per seat who appeared in 2018.

In the U.S. House

  • There were 2,118 major party candidates on the primary ballot this year, including 870 Democrats, or 41.08%% of all candidates who ran, and 1,248 Republicans, or 58.92% of all candidates who ran.

  • The 870 Democrats who appeared on the primary ballot this year were 75 fewer than the 945 who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and 211 fewer than the 1,081 who appeared in 2018.
  • The 1,248 Republicans who appeared on the ballot were 195 more than the 1,053 who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and 382 more than the 866 who appeared in 2018.
  • The percentage of major party candidates this year who identified as Democrats was lower than in 2020, when 47.3% of major party candidates did, and in 2018, when 55.52% did.
  • Conversely, the percentage of major party candidates who identified as Republicans this year was higher than in 2020, when 52.7% did, and in 2018, when 44.48% did. 

  • There were 1.98 Democratic candidates on the ballot per U.S. House seat this year. That’s fewer than the 2.14 Democrats per seat who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and the 2.46 Democrats per seat who appeared in 2018.
  • There were 2.84 Republican candidates on the ballot per U.S. House seat in 2022. That’s more than the 2.39 Republicans per seat who appeared on the ballot in 2020 and the 1.06 Republicans per seat who appeared in 2018.



Sharice Davids (D), Amanda Adkins (R), and Steve Hohe (L) are running in Kansas’ 3rd Congressional District

Incumbent Sharice Davids (D), Amanda Adkins (R), and Steve Hohe (L) are running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Kansas’ 3rd Congressional District.

This race is a rematch of the 2020 general election, when Davids defeated Adkins 53.6% to 43.6%. Hohe also ran that year and received 2.8% of the vote. Davids was first elected in 2018, when she defeated then-incumbent Rep. Kevin Yoder (R) 53.6% to 43.9%. Yoder had been in office since 2011.

The Kansas City Star’s Daniel Desrochers said, “After Adkins lost to Democratic Rep. Sharice Davids by 10 percentage points in 2020, the Republican-controlled Legislature redrew the district. … [It] went from one Democrats won in the presidential race in both 2016 and 2020 to boundaries that former President Donald Trump would have won in 2016 and President Joe Biden would have narrowly flipped four years later.”

The Cook Political Report’s PVI (Partisan Voting Index) for the old district was D+2, while the score for the redrawn district is R+1. President Joe Biden (D) would have carried the redrawn district in 2020 with 51.2% of the vote to former President Donald Trump’s (R) 46.7%, while Trump would have carried it in 2018 with 48.2% of the vote to Hillary Clinton’s 42.9%.

Davids, a member of the Ho-Chunk Nation, worked as a lawyer and non-profit executive serving Native American communities before coming into office. Davids was one of the first two Native American women elected to Congress, alongside former Rep. Deb Haaland (D-N.M.), and was the first openly lesbian Native American elected to Congress.

Adkins is a former congressional staffer who served as chairwoman of the Kansas Republican Party from 2009 to 2013. Adkins also served on the executive committee of the Kansas Chamber of Commerce and was a vice-president at the Cerner Corporation for 11 years.

Davids has focused on economic issues and said her willingness to work with Republicans on bipartisan legislation would help bring manufacturing jobs to Kansans. “I worked with both parties to boost manufacturing right here in America,” Davids said. “From health care to infrastructure to agriculture, I’ll work with anyone, regardless of party, to do what’s best for Kansas.” Davids has also highlighted her support for abortion rights. “My position is clear: I believe people have a right to make their own health care decisions, not the government, and I have stood up against extreme politicians who want to take away that right,” Davids said.

Adkins said Davids’s voting record is too aligned with the Biden administration and does not reflect the will of Davids’s constituents. Adkins also said the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, a measure Davids voted for, was responsible for the increase in inflation in 2022. Adkins said, “Paying more for goods and services? Thank Sharice Davids, who voted for the $1.9 trillion spending bill that has fueled inflation to a 40-year high.” Adkins has also focused on immigration and said she supports building a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border.

The outcome of this race will affect the partisan balance of the U.S. House of Representatives in the 118th Congress. All 435 districts in the House are up for election. As of September 2, 2022, Democrats hold a 219-211 advantage in the U.S. House with five vacant districts. Republicans need to gain a net of seven districts to win a majority in the chamber.



Rhode Island sees first open U.S. House seat since 2010

The filing deadline for candidates running for Congress in Rhode Island this year was July 15, 2022. Nine candidates are running for Rhode Island’s two U.S. House districts, including seven Democrats and two Republicans. That’s 4.5 candidates per district, more than the 2.5 candidates per district in 2020 and the three in 2018.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • This is the first election to take place under new district lines following the 2020 census. Rhode Island was apportioned two districts, the same number it was apportioned after the 2010 census.
  • The nine candidates running this year are four more than the five who ran in 2020 and three more than the six who ran in 2018. Seven candidates ran in 2016, six in 2014, and 12 in 2012.
  • There is an open seat for the first time since 2010. Rep. Jim Langevin (D), the incumbent in the 2nd district, is retiring.
  • Seven candidates—six Democrats and one Republican—are running to replace Langevin, the most candidates running for a seat this year. 
  • Rep. David Cicilline (R), the incumbent in the 1st district, is running for re-election and is not facing any primary challengers. 
  • The Democratic primary in the 2nd district is the only contested primary this year. That number is a decade low. There were two contested primaries in 2020, 2018, 2016, and 2014. There were four contested primaries in 2012.
  • Democratic and Republican candidates filed to run in both districts,  so no seats are guaranteed to either party this year.

Rhode Island and two other states—Delaware and New Hampshire—are holding their congressional primaries on September 13, 2022. In Rhode Island, the winner of a primary election is the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes, even if he or she does not win an outright majority of votes cast.



Three Republicans and one Democrat are running in ranked-choice voting election for U.S. Senate in Alaska

Incumbent Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R), Kelly Tshibaka (R), Patricia Chesbro (D), and Buzz Kelley (R) are running for a seat in the U.S. Senate from Alaska on November 8, 2022.

The four candidates advanced from the top-four primary held on August 16, 2022, the first time Alaska used such a system in a Senate race since voters there approved it in 2020. All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, ran in a single primary. Murkowski, Tshibaka, Chesbro, and Kelley received the most votes and advanced to the general election, where the winner will be decided using ranked-choice voting.

Murkowski and Tshibaka have led in media attention and together received more than 80% of the primary vote, with Murkowski receiving 45% and Tshibaka receiving 38.6%. FiveThirtyEight’s Geoffrey Skelley and Zoha Qamar wrote, “the ranked choice voting process seems likely to set up a contest between the two leading Republicans, [Murkowski and Tshibaka].”

Murkowski first took office in 2002. Lisa Murkowski’s father, Frank Murkowski (R), was a senator from 1981 to 2002, when he resigned to become governor of Alaska. After taking office, the elder Murkowski appointed his daughter to the U.S. Senate seat. In 2010, after losing the Republican nomination, Lisa Murkowski successfully ran for re-election as a write-in candidate, only the second senator in U.S. history to do so. In 2016, Murkowski was re-elected with 44.4% of the vote, defeating second-place finisher Joe Miller (L) by 15.2 percentage points.

Murkowski has highlighted her seniority and said her willingness to work with Democrats has helped steer federal funding to Alaska. Murkowski said, “This race is about who can deliver best for Alaska. Through my seniority and ability to work across party lines, I’m getting real results for Alaska.” Murkowski has also highlighted her support for energy development in the state and said her vote for the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act has already brought billions to Alaska.

Tshibaka, a former commissioner at the Alaska Department of Administration, has accused Murkowski of not using her seniority to block more of President Joe Biden’s (D) agenda. Tshibaka said, “Lisa Murkowski has enabled Biden’s agenda by casting the tie-breaking deciding vote to advance his anti-energy Interior Secretary nominee and confirming over 90% of his radical nominees.” Tshibaka has also focused on economic issues and said she supports a Parental Bill of Rights that would give parents “a right to be fully informed and to approve of any sex education, gender identification, or race theory material being presented or discussed with their child.”

In February 2021, Murkowski voted to convict then-President Donald Trump (R) after the U.S. House impeached him over the events surrounding the January 6 breach of the Capitol. In June 2021, Trump endorsed Tshibaka. The Republican Party of Alaska also endorsed Tshibaka.

U.S. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R) and fellow Alaska U.S. Sen. Dan Sullivan (R) endorsed Murkowski. Murkowski also has the endorsements of several Democratic elected officials, including Sens. Joe Manchin (D) and Kyrsten Sinema (D).

Chesbro, a retired educator who serves on the Matanuska-Susitna Borough Planning Commission, has highlighted her support for renewable energy. In her responses to Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey, Chesbro said, “We cannot turn off the spigot on fossil fuels. We can invest in our future through developing our renewable resources to create the energy on which we depend” Chesbro has also focused on her support for abortion rights.

Kelley, a retired mechanic, said he supports lowering government spending and said the United States should become energy independent through oil exploration and solar energy development. Kelley also said he supports unions. “Union jobs provide a good income. Those union hands then go out into their communities and spend that money. That is how you have an economy folks,” Kelley said. 

The outcome of this race will affect the partisan balance of the U.S. Senate. Thirty-five of 100 seats are up for election, including one special election. Democrats have an effective majority, with the chamber split 50-50 and Vice President Kamala Harris (D) having the tie-breaking vote. Fourteen seats held by Democrats and 21 seats held by Republicans are up for election in 2022.



New Hampshire sees 19 U.S. House candidates this year, up from 12 in 2020

The filing deadline for candidates running for Congress in New Hampshire this year was June 10, 2022. Nineteen candidates are running for New Hampshire’s two U.S. House districts, including two Democrats and 17 Republicans. That’s 9.5 candidates per district, more than the six candidates per district in 2020 and fewer than the 12.5 in 2018.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • This is the first election to take place under new district lines following the 2020 census. New Hampshire was apportioned two districts, the same number it was apportioned after the 2010 census.
  • The 19 candidates running this year are seven more than the 12 who ran in 2020 and six fewer than the 25 who ran in 2018. Fourteen candidates ran in 2016, and 10 ran in 2014 and 2012.
  • Incumbents Chris Pappas (D-1st) and Annie Kuster (D-2nd) are both running for re-election, meaning there are no open seats this year. The last year there was an open U.S. House seat in New Hampshire was 2018. 
  • Neither incumbent is facing a primary challenger.
  • There are two contested primaries this year, both Republican. That’s fewer than the three contested primaries in 2020 and 2018, and the same number as in 2016, 2014, and 2012.
  • Eleven candidates are running in the 1st district, the most candidates running for a seat this year.
  • Republican and Democratic candidates filed to run in both districts, so no seats are guaranteed to either party this year.

New Hampshire and two other states—Delaware and Rhode Island—are holding their congressional primaries on September 13, 2022. In New Hampshire, the winners of primary contests are determined via plurality vote (i.e., the candidate with the highest number of votes is declared the winner of the primary even if he or she did not win more than 50 percent of the vote).



Delaware sees two U.S. House candidates this year, the fewest since 2014

The filing deadline for candidates running for Congress in Delaware this year was July 12, 2022. Two candidates are running for Delaware’s At-Large U.S. House district, one Democrat and one Republican. 

The two candidates running this year are one fewer than the three who ran in 2020 and 2018, and five fewer than the seven who ran in 2016, when the seat was last open. Two candidates ran in 2014, and three did in 2012.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • Because it has only one U.S. House seat, Delaware did not need to redistrict after the 2020 census.
  • Incumbent Lisa Blunt Rochester (D), first elected in 2016, is running for re-election.
  • Lee Murphy (R) was the only Republican candidate who filed to run this year. 
  • Blunt Rochester and Murphy were the Democratic and Republican nominees in 2020, meaning this year’s general election will be a rematch. 
  • Since the two candidates are from different parties, there are no contested primaries this year. The Republican primary was contested in 2020, 2018, and 2012, while the Democratic primary was contested in 2016. There were no contested primaries in 2014. 

Delaware and two other states — New Hampshire and Rhode Island — are holding primary elections on September 13, 2022. In Delaware, the winner of a primary election is the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes, even if he or she does not win an outright majority of votes cast.



Massachusetts sees 19 U.S. House candidates this year, fewer than in 2020 and 2018

The filing deadline for candidates running for Congress in Massachusetts this year was June 7, 2022. Nineteen candidates are running for Massachusetts’s nine U.S. House districts, including nine Democrats and ten Republicans. That’s 2.1 candidates per district, less than the three candidates per district in 2020 and the 3.44 in 2018.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • This is the first election to take place under new district lines following the 2020 census. Massachusetts was apportioned nine districts, the same number it was apportioned after the 2010 census.
  • The 19 candidates running this year are eight fewer than the 27 candidates who ran in 2020 and 12 fewer than the 31 who ran in 2018. Fourteen candidates ran in 2016, 20 in 2014, and 28 in 2012.
  • All incumbents are running for re-election, meaning there are no open seats this year. There was one open seat in 2020 and 2018, no open seats in 2016 and 2014, and one open seat in 2012.
  • The 8th and 9th districts drew the most candidates this year, with one Democrat and two Republicans running in each. 
  • There are two contested primaries this year, both Republican. That’s three fewer than in 2020, when there were five contested primaries, and six fewer than in 2018, when there were eight contested primaries. There was one contested primary in 2016, three in 2014, and nine in 2012.
  • No incumbents are facing primary challengers this year. That number is down from 2020, when three incumbents faced primary challengers, and 2018, when five incumbents did. No incumbents faced primary challengers in 2016, two did in 2014, and three did in 2012.
  • The 4th district is guaranteed to Democrats because no Republicans filed. No districts are guaranteed to Republicans because no Democrats filed.

Massachusetts is holding primary elections on September 6, 2022. In Massachusetts, the winner of a primary election is the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes, even if the candidate does not receive an outright majority of votes cast.



Murkowski, Tshibaka, Chesbro, and Kelley advance to the general election in Alaska’s U.S. Senate race

Nineteen candidates ran in the top-four Senate primary in Alaska on August 16, 2022. Incumbent Lisa Murkowski (R), Kelly Tshibaka (R), Patricia Chesbro (D), and Buzz Kelley (R) advanced to the general election.

This was the first time the top-four primary was used in a Senate race since Alaska voters approved the concept in 2020. Under this system, all candidates, regardless of party affiliation, run in a single primary election. The four candidates who receive the most votes advance to the general election, where the winner is decided using ranked-choice voting.

The 19 candidates included eight Republicans, three Democrats, one Libertarian, five independents, and two Alaskan Independence Party candidates.

FiveThirtyEight’s Nate Silver wrote it was likely at least two Republican candidates and a Democratic one would advance to the general election.

Murkowski, the incumbent since 2002, had the endorsements of U.S. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R), fellow Alaska U.S. Sen. Dan Sullivan (R), and Sens. Joe Manchin (D) and Kyrsten Sinema (D).

Tshibaka, a former commissioner at the Alaska Department of Administration had the endorsements of former President Donald Trump (R) and the Alaska Republican Party.

Chesbro is an educator from Palmer, and Kelley is a retired mechanic from Wasilla.

Three election forecasters rate the general election Solid or Safe Republican.

Murkowski’s father, Frank Murkowski (R), was Senator from 1980 to 2002, when he resigned to become governor of Alaska. After taking office, the elder Murkowski appointed his daughter to the U.S. Senate seat. In 2010, after losing the Republican nomination, Lisa Murkowski successfully ran for re-election as a write-in candidate. As of 2022, she was one of two U.S. Senators, alongside South Carolina’s Strom Thurmond in 1954, to have been elected as a write-in candidate.



New York sees seven open U.S. House seats, a decade-high

The filing deadline for candidates running for Congress in New York this year was June 10, 2022. One hundred and six candidates are running for New York’s 26 U.S. House districts, including 67 Democrats and 39 Republicans. That’s 4.08 candidates per district, more than the four candidates per district in 2020 and the 3.15 in 2018.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • This is the first election to take place under new district lines following the 2020 census, which resulted in New York losing one U.S. House district. 
  • The 106 candidates running this year are two fewer than the 108 who ran in 2020 and 21 more than the 85 who ran in 2018. Seventy-seven candidates ran in 2016, 55 in 2014, and 81 in 2012.

  • Four incumbents are running in districts other than the ones they currently represent. Rep. Claudia Tenney (R), who represents the 22nd district, is running in the 24th this year. Rep. Sean Maloney (D), who represents the 18th district, is running in the 17th, and Rep. Mondaire Jones (D), the incumbent in the 17th, is running in the 10th.
  • Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D), who represents the 10th district, is running in the 12th this year. Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D), the incumbent in the 12th district, is running for re-election, making the 12th the only New York district this year where two incumbents are running against each other. 
  • Five incumbents—two Democrats and three Republicans—are not running for re-election this year. 
  • Rep. Lee Zeldin (R), who represents the 1st district, and Rep. Tom Suozzi (D), who represents the 3rd district, filed to run for governor. 
  • Rep. John Katko (R), who represents the 24th district, and Rep. Kathleen Rice (D), who represents the 4th district, are retiring. 
  • Rep. Christopher Jacobs (R), who represents the 27th district, is also retiring. The 27th district will be eliminated after this cycle due to redistricting. 
  • There are seven open seats this year, a decade-high. That number is up from four in 2020, and from one in 2018. There were four open seats in 2016 and two each in 2014 and 2012.

  • The open seats include Zeldin’s 1st district, Suozzi’s 3rd, Rice’s 4th, Maloney’s 18th, and Tenney’s 22nd. Additionally, the 19th and the 23rd districts are currently vacant. 
  • Rep. Antonio Delgado (D), who represented the 19th, was appointed lieutenant governor of New York, and Rep. Tom Reed (R), who represented the 23rd, resigned after a sexual misconduct allegation. Special elections will be held on August 23 to fill both seats.
  • Fourteen candidates are running to replace Nadler in the 10th district, the most candidates running for a seat this year. One of the candidates, former New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio (D), unofficially withdrew from the race, but his name will appear on the ballot.
  • There are 16 contested Democratic primaries this year, the same number as in 2020, and three more than in 2018, when there were 13. There were 10 contested Democratic primaries in 2016, five in 2014, and 10 in 2012. 
  • There are eight contested Republican primaries. That’s one more than in 2020, when there were seven contested Republican primaries, and seven more than in 2018, when there was one. There were three contested Republican primaries in 2016, five in 2014, and five in 2012. 

  • Seven incumbents are not facing any primary challengers this year. 
  • One seat—the 5th— is guaranteed to Democrats because no Republicans filed. No seats are guaranteed to Republicans because no Democrats filed. 

New York and Florida are holding their congressional primaries on August 23, 2022. In New York, the winner of a primary election is the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes, even if he or she does not win more than 50 percent of votes cast.

Additional reading:



Florida sees 152 U.S. House candidates in 2022, a decade-high

The filing deadline for candidates running for Congress in Florida this year was June 17, 2022. One hundred and fifty-two candidates are running for Florida’s 28 U.S. House districts, including 58 Democrats and 94 Republicans. That’s 5.43 candidates per district, more than the 4.22 candidates per district in 2020 and the 3.86 in 2018.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • This is the first election to take place under new district lines following the 2020 census, which resulted in Florida gaining one U.S. House district. 
  • The 152 candidates running this year are a decade-high. One hundred and fourteen candidates ran in 2020, 104 in 2018, 100 in 2016, 75 in 2014, and 89 in 2012.
  • A total of eight incumbents are running in districts different from the ones they currently represent. 
  • Two incumbents from different parties are running against each other in the 2nd district. Rep. Al Lawson (D), who represents the 5th district, is running against 2nd district incumbent Rep. Neal Dunn (R) in the general election.
  • Four incumbents are not running for re-election. Rep. Charlie Crist (D), who represents the 13th district, is running for governor, and Rep. Val Demings (D), who represents the 10th district, is running for the U.S. Senate. Rep. Stephanie Murphy (D), who represents the 7th district, and Rep. Ted Deutch (D), who represents the 22nd district, are retiring.  
  • Six seats are open, including Crist’s, Demings’, and Murphy’s. The three remaining open seats are the 4th, the 15th, and the 23rd. 
  • Rep. John Rutherford (R), who represents the 4th district, is running in the 5th this year, and Rep. Scott Franklin (R), who represents the 15th district, is running in the 18th. Rep. Debbie Wasserman-Schultz (D), who represents the 23rd district, is running in the 25th.
  • The six open seats this year are four more than in 2020, when two seats were open, and two more than in 2018, when four seats were open. Seven seats were open in 2016, and no seats were open in 2014.

  • Sixteen candidates—10 Democrats and six Republicans—are running to replace Demings in the 10th district, the most candidates running for a seat this year.
  • There are 38 contested primaries this year, a decade-high. That’s nine more than in 2020, when there were 29 contested primaries, and seven more than in 2018, when there were 31 contested primaries. 
  • Fourteen of the contested primaries are Democratic primaries. That’s four more than in 2020, when there were ten contested Democratic primaries, and five fewer than in 2018, when there were 19. 
  • Twenty-four of the contested primaries are Republican primaries. That number, a decade-high, is five more than in 2020, when there were 19 contested Republican primaries, and 12 more than in 2018, when there were 12.

  • There are 17 incumbents in contested primaries this year, also a decade-high. That number is seven more than in 2020, when ten incumbents faced contested primaries, and six more than in 2018, when 11 incumbents did. 
  • Six incumbents face no primary challengers this year. 
  • Three seats—the 5th, the 6th, and the 18th districts—are guaranteed to Republicans because no Democrats filed. No seats are guaranteed to Democrats because no Republicans filed.

Florida is holding its primaries on August 23. In Florida, the winner of a primary election is the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes, even if he or she does not win an outright majority of votes cast.

Additional reading: