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Upcoming Article III Judicial Vacancies

According to the latest vacancy data from the U.S. Courts, there were 34 total announced upcoming vacancies for Article III judgeships. Article III judgeships refer to federal judges who serve on one of the 13 U.S. courts of appeal, 94 U.S. district courts, and on the Court of International Trade. These are lifetime appointments made by the president and confirmed by the U.S. Senate.

These positions are not yet vacant but will be at some point in the future with every judge having announced his or her intent to either leave the bench or assume senior status. In the meantime, these judges will continue to serve in their current positions.

The president and Senate do not need to wait for a position to become vacant before they can start the confirmation process for a successor. For example, the process has already begun for Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson, who was nominated to replace Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer when he vacates the seat at the beginning of the court’s summer recess. There are six nominees pending for upcoming vacancies.

Twenty-two vacancy effective dates have not been determined because the judge has not announced the date he or she will leave the bench. The next upcoming scheduled vacancy will take place on April 17, 2022, when U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California Judge John Mendez assumes senior status.

In addition to these 34 upcoming vacancies, there are 73 current Article III vacancies in the federal judiciary out of the 870 total Article III judgeships. 

President Biden has nominated 83 individuals to federal judgeships on Article III courts. Fifty-eight of those nominees have been confirmed. Of the 25 nominees going through the confirmation process, 11 are awaiting a vote in the U.S. Senate, six are awaiting a committee vote, and eight are awaiting a committee hearing.



What’s on the ballot today

By: David Luchs

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Milwaukee mayoral race headlines today’s elections
  2. A look at upcoming Article III judicial vacancies
  3. Help us continue our coverage! Join the Ballotpedia Society today


What’s on the ballot today

Milwaukee’s mayoral election is in the spotlight as the city heads to the polls. Ballotpedia is tracking elections within our coverage scope in seven states today. The race to fill out the remainder of former mayor Tom Barrett’s unexpired term is the only battleground among them.

Acting Mayor Cavalier Johnson and Robert Donovan are the two candidates who advanced from a seven-candidate Feb. 15 primary, with 42% and 22% of the vote respectively. Although the race is officially nonpartisan, Johnson has said he is a Democrat. Donovan described himself as an independent in a 2016 run for the office.

Both candidates have served on the Milwaukee Common Council. The 15-member council is the city’s legislative body and is the equivalent of the city council in other U.S. cities. Johnson, who is serving as acting mayor in his capacity as council president, was elected to the council in 2016 and became council president in 2020. Donovan served on the council from 2000 to 2020.

Both candidates have campaigned on their public safety plans. Donovan says Milwaukee has never been less safe than during the two years Johnson served as council president and says he would increase police staffing levels and step up patrols. Johnson says he worked to establish funding for 200 new officers while council president and that Donovan’s public safety plan had not been updated since 2016.

Other elections within Ballotpedia’s coverage scope today include local and municipal elections throughout Wisconsin, Oklahoma, and Missouri, as well as in Anchorage, Alaska. There are also state legislative special elections ongoing in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania, as well as a special primary for the California U.S. House district last represented by Devin Nunes (R).

The special election to replace Nunes will be the eighth to take place since the start of the 117th Congress in January 2021. As of April 5, 2020, there had been three special elections for seats in the 116th Congress. As of April 5, 2018, there had been eight special elections for seats in the 115th Congress.

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Help us continue our coverage! Join the Ballotpedia Society today

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There are over 125,000 elections a year in the United States, some of which are happening today! It’s imperative that America’s voters have clear, concise, and unbiased information about the candidates and issues on their ballots, and with your monthly support, Ballotpedia can work to close the gap to cover every single electoral race in the USA!

But we can’t do it without you, and as a member of the Ballotpedia Society, your tax deductible contribution will help make that happen!

Become a Ballotpedia Society member today! 


A look at upcoming Article III judicial vacancies

According to the latest vacancy data from the U.S. Courts, there were 34 total announced upcoming vacancies for Article III judgeships. Article III judgeships refer to federal judges who serve on one of the 13 U.S. courts of appeal, 94 U.S. district courts, and on the Court of International Trade. These are lifetime appointments made by the president and confirmed by the U.S. Senate.

These positions are not yet vacant but will be at some point in the future with every judge having announced his or her intent to either leave the bench or assume senior status. In the meantime, these judges will continue to serve in their current positions.

The president and Senate do not need to wait for a position to become vacant before they can start the confirmation process for a successor. For example, the process has already begun for Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson, who was nominated to replace Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer when he vacates the seat at the beginning of the court’s summer recess. The Senate Judiciary Committee voted yesterday on whether to advance Jackson’s nomination to the full Senate. In all, there are six nominees pending for upcoming vacancies.

Twenty-two vacancy effective dates have not been determined because the judge has not announced the date he or she will leave the bench. The next upcoming scheduled vacancy will take place on April 17, 2022, when U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California Judge John Mendez assumes senior status.

In addition to these 34 upcoming vacancies, there are 73 current Article III vacancies in the federal judiciary out of the 870 total Article III judgeships. At roughly the same point in President Trump’s first term (March 30, 2018), there were 148 current Article III vacancies.

President Biden has nominated 83 individuals to federal judgeships on Article III courts. Fifty-eight of those nominees have been confirmed. Of the 25 nominees going through the confirmation process, 11 are awaiting a vote in the U.S. Senate, six are awaiting a committee vote, and eight are awaiting a committee hearing.

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How you can help us cover more elections

By: Samuel Wonacott

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. You can make a difference—join the Ballotpedia Society today
  2. Idaho state legislative incumbents more likely to face primary challengers compared to recent years
  3. President Joe Biden’s approval at 41%, congressional approval at 23%


How you can help us cover more elections

It’s a critical midterm election year! That means millions of voters are turning to Ballotpedia for reliable facts about and insights on the races that will shape their schools, communities, and states.

We take our role as a go-to source for unbiased voter information seriously. And that’s why we’ve set a goal to expand our coverage to 125,000 elections — from the presidency to the local school board. It’s a big job, and our Ballotpedia Society members are key to helping us accomplish it. 

Your monthly support is essential to helping us provide voters with the information they need to make confident, informed choices on Election Day.

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Idaho state legislative incumbents more likely to face primary challengers compared to recent years

More state legislative incumbents are facing primary challenges in Idaho this year than at any point since at least 2014. Seventy-five incumbents are seeking re-election this year, 61.3% of whom (46) are running in contested primaries. From 2014 to 2020, the percentage of incumbents in contested primaries hovered at around half that rate ranging from 32 to 34%.

Of those 46 incumbents in contested primaries, 45 are Republicans, and one—Rep. James Ruchti—is a Democrat.

Redistricting is part of the reason why there are more primaries this year. When states redraw district lines, they can change so that incumbents who previously represented one district now live within the district lines of another. This can result in incumbents challenging other incumbents in contested primaries or general elections if they choose to seek re-election. 

There are four such incumbent vs. incumbent primaries this year:

  • House District 9B: Rep. Scott Syme (R), first elected to District 11A in 2016, will face Rep. Judy Boyle (R), first elected in 2008.
  • House District 22A: Rep. Greg Ferch (R), first elected to District 21B in 2020, will face Rep. John Vander Woude (R), first elected in 2010.
  • Senate District 9: Sen. Jim Rice (R), first elected to District 8 in 2012, will face Sen. Abby Lee (R), first elected in 2014. Two other candidates are running in this primary.
  • Senate District 14: Sen. Steven Thayn (R), first elected to District 8 in 2012, will face Sen. C. Scott Grow (R), first appointed in 2018. One other candidate is running in this primary.

For the purposes of our analysis, all eight of these incumbents are considered incumbents in contested primaries.

Looking beyond incumbents in contested primaries, the total number of primaries also increased this year to its highest level compared to previous cycles, with Republican contests entirely driving the increase.

These figures come from Ballotpedia’s analysis of post-filing deadline competitiveness statistics. Idaho’s filing deadline for state and congressional candidates was March 11.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • Of the 105 seats up for election, 32.3% are open, meaning no incumbent is in the running. This is the largest percentage of open seats since at least 2014. Newcomers are guaranteed to win these open seats, meaning at least one-third of the Idaho Legislature will be in the 2023 legislative session.
  • Republicans are running for all 105 seats in the state House and Senate for the first time since at least 2014. Democrats are running for 46 seats, the lowest number in that same time span. This means Republican candidates are effectively guaranteed to win legislative majorities due to a lack of major party competition.
  • Overall, 259 major party candidates—212 Republicans and 47 Democrats—filed to run for the state legislature. This equals 2.5 candidates per seat, the most since at least 2014.

Republicans currently hold a 28-7 majority in the state Senate and a 58-12 majority in the state House. With a Republican governor, Idaho is one of 23 Republican trifectas.

Idaho’s legislative primaries are scheduled for May 17.

Click the link below to read more of our research on primary election competitiveness.

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President Joe Biden’s approval at 41%, congressional approval at 23%

Recent approval polling averages show President Biden one percentage point up from his lowest-ever approval rating. Polling averages also show the U.S. Congress maintained a rating above 20% through March.

Our polling index showed Biden at 41% approval and 53% disapproval on March 31. At this time last month, Biden’s approval rating was also 41%. Biden’s highest approval rating was 55% on May 26, 2021. His lowest rating was 40% on Feb. 18, 2022.

Congress was at 23% approval and 63% disapproval. At this time last month, its approval rating was 22%. Congress’ highest approval rating received during Biden’s term was 36% on July 16, 2021. It’s lowest was 14% on Jan. 26, 2022.

Our polling index averages polls conducted over the last thirty days to calculate presidential and congressional approval ratings. The data is updated daily as new polling results are published.

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Supreme Court nominee Jackson’s committee vote scheduled for April 4

By: Douglas Kronaizl

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Senate Judiciary Committee voting whether to advance Ketanji Brown Jackson’s nomination on April 4
  2. Nineteen candidates running in Oregon’s Republican gubernatorial primary on May 17
  3. #FridayTrivia: How long was Hawaii’s statewide mask requirement in place?

Our America’s Next Top Pet comPETition has been ruff, and we’re now down to our final four-legged competitors. Take a look at the pet profiles here, and be sure to vote your favorite on to the next round to see who will be our 2022 chamPAWion. 


Supreme Court nominee Jackson’s committee vote scheduled for April 4

The Senate Judiciary Committee is scheduled to vote on April 4 on whether to advance Ketanji Brown Jackson’s Supreme Court nomination. Chairman Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) announced the date on March 23.

The committee is evenly split between 11 Democrats and 11 Republicans. Jackson can advance with a tied vote under an organizing resolution passed at the start of the 177th Congress. If advanced by the committee, the full Senate will then vote on Jackon’s confirmation.

In 2020, Justice Amy Coney Barrett’s committee vote took place on Oct. 22, and her full Senate confirmation vote took place on Oct. 26. When Justice Stephen Breyer’s vacancy was announced, President Joe Biden (D) said he hoped to have a nominee confirmed within 40 days of the nomination, which would be April 9, 2022.

The average length of a Supreme Court vacancy since 1962, when measured from the retirement announcement to confirmation of a successor, is 132 days. The longest vacancy came between the terms of Antonin Scalia and Neil Gorsuch at 419 days, and the shortest was between the terms of Charles Evans Whittaker and Byron White at 13 days.

Jackson’s committee vote follows four days of hearings, which took place from March 21 to 24. The hearings involved a statement from Jackson, interviews with witnesses testifying for and against the nomination, and questions from senators regarding the nominee’s experience, past judgments, and judicial philosophy. Topics discussed by senators included abortion, Jackson’s approach to sentencing, LGBTQ issues, and the Supreme Court’s use of emergency orders. To learn more about these hearings, click here.

Jackson currently serves as a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Biden nominated her to that post in April 2021, and the Senate confirmed her with a 53-44 vote on June 14, 2021. Three Republicans, Sen. Susan Collins (R-Maine), Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), and Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), voted to confirm.

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Nineteen candidates running in Oregon’s Republican gubernatorial primary on May 17

We are bringing you updates on competitive primaries across the country and at all levels of government throughout the 2022 election cycle. Today, let’s take a closer look at Oregon.

Nineteen candidates are running in Oregon’s Republican gubernatorial primary on May 17. Incumbent Gov. Kate Brown (D) is term-limited and cannot run for re-election.

Three candidates—former House Minority Leader Christine Drazan, oncologist Bud Pierce, and Mayor Stan Pulliam of Sandy, Ore.—have led in fundraising and media coverage. All three candidates have highlighted education and public safety as key campaign issues.

On education, Drazan said she would change the state superintendent of public instruction from an appointed position to an elected one. Pierce proposed a non-political board to oversee education in the state. Pulliam said he would empower parents and local school boards.

With public safety, Drazan suggested an increase in funding to the state troopers. Pierce said he would coordinate between federal, state, and local authorities to improve public safety. Pulliam said he would triple the size of the Oregon State Police and temporarily deploy them in Portland, the state’s largest city.

Oregon has not elected a Republican governor since the 1982 re-election of Gov. Victor Atiyeh (R), giving the state the second-longest current streak of Democratic governors behind only Washington. Three independent election forecasters rate the general election as Likely or Lean Democratic.

Also running in the primary are Raymond Baldwin, Bridget Barton, Court Boice, David Burch, Reed Christensen, Jessica Gomez, Nick Hess, Tim McCloud, Kerry McQuisten, Brandon Merritt, John Presco, Amber Richardson, Bill Sizemore, Stefan Strek, Marc Thielman, and Bob Tiernan.

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#FridayTrivia: How long was Hawaii’s statewide mask requirement in place?

On March 26, the last statewide mask requirement in the country came to an end when Hawaii lifted its masking rules. This was the first time since N.J. Gov. Phil Murphy (D) ordered the first mask requirements where no state in the country had an active statewide mask requirement. Of the 50 states, 39 implemented statewide mask requirements at some point, and, of that total, Hawaii had the longest cumulative length of statewide mask requirements in days.

How long was Hawaii’s statewide mask requirement in place?

  1. 386 days
  2. 704 days
  3. 544 days
  4. 671 days


Statewide ballot measure certifications lag behind recent even-numbered years

By: David Luchs

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Seventy-eight measures have been certified for statewide ballots this year
  2. Candidate Connection update: One race reached 100% completion in the past week
  3. Patricia Guerrero joins California Supreme Court

Statewide ballot measure certifications lag behind recent even-numbered years

Seventy-eight statewide measures have been certified for the ballot in 31 states so far this year, five less than the average number certified at this point in other even-numbered years from 2010 to 2020. 

Here’s an update on the latest ballot measure activity:

From 2010 to 2020, the average number of statewide ballot measures certified in an even-numbered year was 164. By this time during even-numbered years from 2010 through 2020, an average of 83 statewide measures had been certified for the ballot. 

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Candidate Connection update: One race reached 100% completion in the past week

Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey asks candidates for federal, state, and local office to share what motivates them on a personal and political level. We’ll be providing regular updates on how many races have a 100% survey completion rate in Thursday editions of the Brew this year.

As of March 29, 2022, we’re tracking 20 races with final candidate lists and a 100% Candidate Connection completion rate. One of those races, the Democratic primary for Georgia Insurance and Fire Safety Commissioner, reached 100% completion in the past week.

We use the term race to describe a primary, runoff, or general election for a single office or seat or for a single set of seats that are elected as a batch. For example, a school board general election for three at-large seats where each voter selects three candidates would be one race, while a school board general election for three seats elected by district where each voter is voting for one candidate would be three separate races.

Some other details about the 20 races with a 100% response rate:

  • As of this week, there are six states with at least one race with a 100% response rate.
  • Thirteen of the 20 races are taking place in Texas.
  • Three of the 20 races are general elections.
  • Of the 17 primaries and primary runoffs, 10 are for the Democratic nomination and seven are for the Republican nomination.
  • Ten of the 20 are races for U.S. House.

Three candidates are seeking the Democratic nomination for Georgia Insurance and Fire Safety Commissioner: Raphael Baker, Janice Laws Robinson, and Matthew Wilson. Three Republicans are also running for the office, including incumbent John King. The last time the office was up, in 2018, Jim Beck (R) defeated Laws Robinson 50.4% to 47.0%.

Georgia’s Insurance and Fire Safety Commissioner is responsible for managing the Office of Insurance and Fire Safety, which is charged with regulating Georgia’s insurance industry and ensuring fire safety. All 50 states have an insurance commissioner office, 11 of which hold elections for the position. Republicans hold an elected insurance commissioner office in eight states to Democrats’ three.

Here’s how the three candidates answered the question, “Who are you? Tell us about yourself.”

Raphael Baker:

“I am uniquely qualified to be Georgia’s Insurance Commissioner. I am a business owner, philanthropist, author, mentor, family man and friend. I have been in the insurance industry for almost two continuous decades and started my insurance career as a front desk receptionist for a small agency. I worked in many other capacities and one of my proudest moments was opening and owning my own agency for six years. During the last five years, I have been in a leadership position for a national insurance carrier and I have been recruiting, hiring, training and developing budding insurance agency owners.”

Janice Laws Robinson:

“I am a licensed insurance professional with over two decades of experience. As the managing partner and principal broker, I own a small specialty lines insurance agency, J. Laws & Associates, LLC. Born in Jamaica, I immigrated to the United States as a teenager with my family to follow the American Dream and became a proud United States citizen a few years later. My journey to serve Georgians is a result of my life experience as an award-winning insurance professional, published author, wife, devoted mother of two courageous daughters and small business owner. Over the past few years, I have expanded my public service into my immediate community of Newnan, serving on the board of the Coweta County Airport Authority, and founding the Coweta Democratic Women’s Council. In 2018, I ran for public office in the GA Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner race as the Democratic nominee to make a difference in the high rates of insurance premiums for Georgia’s everyday families and small businesses. In 2022, I made a commitment to continue the fight and officially announced that I would run again for the citizens of Georgia in the 2022 election cycle for GA Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner.”

Matthew Wilson:

“I am a trial lawyer, two-term state representative, and a proud product of Georgia public schools. I was born and raised in a working class family in Griffin, Georgia. When my dad was disabled on the job, my sister and I were just in kindergarten, and my mom worked night shifts at the local hospital to provide for our family. We had help from Georgia’s worker’s compensation program and Social Security Disability Insurance, so I understand the critical role insurance plays when families are at their most vulnerable. Thanks to the support of my neighbors and the HOPE scholarship, I graduated from the University of Georgia with both my undergraduate and law degrees. After college, I taught math and science to middle schoolers in a low-income community. Since 2019, I have served in the Georgia State House, representing DeKalb and Fulton counties, where I have led the progressive fights to end partisan gerrymandering, ensure ethics in government, stem the tide of gun violence, and ban the harmful practice of LGBTQ conversion therapy. I am proud to be one of Georgia’s seven openly LGBTQ legislators and will be even more proud to bring this representation to Georgia’s 2022 statewide ticket.”

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Patricia Guerrero joins California Supreme Court 

Patricia Guerrero was sworn in to the California Supreme Court on March 28, 2022. Founded in 1849, the California Supreme Court is the state’s court of last resort and has seven judgeships. Of the seven current justices, five were appointed by Democratic governors and two by a Republican governor. 

On Feb. 15, 2022, Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) appointed Guerrero to a seat on the California Supreme Court to replace Justice Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar. He resigned on Oct. 31, 2021, to become president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The Commission on Judicial Appointments confirmed Guerrero’s appointment on March 22, 2022, and she was sworn in on March 28. Prior to joining the court, Guerrero was a judge of the California Fourth District Court of Appeal, Division One, from 2017 to 2022.

The seven justices of the California Supreme Court are selected by gubernatorial appointment. The state bar’s Commission on Judicial Nominee Evaluation recommends candidates to the governor after examining their qualifications and fitness. If they wish to retain their seat for the remainder of the unexpired term, newly-appointed judges are required to participate in yes-no retention elections occurring at the time of the next gubernatorial race, which is held every four years. After the first election, subsequent retention elections are for full 12-year terms.

Ballotpedia examined the composition of the Calfornia Supreme Court in our Ballotpedia Courts: Determiners and Dissenters study. Five of the seven justices currently on the court were seated at the time of the study. We identified three of those five justices as Democrats and the other two as having indeterminate partisanship. We found that in 2020, the California Supreme Court decided 89.5% of cases in a unanimous ruling, the 22nd highest rate across the 52 courts of last resort we examined.

California is one of 46 states to fill supreme court vacancies via a form of gubernatorial appointment. In 18 of those states, including California, the governor appoints a candidate directly, while in the other 28 a nominating commission assists in developing a candidate list. Illinois fills vacancies via the state supreme court, while Louisiana uses the special election method. Virginia and South Carolina fill vacancies through legislative selections. 

This month, three vacancies opened on state supreme courts across the U.S. Utah Supreme Court Justice Deno Himonas retired effective March 2, followed by Maine Supreme Judicial Court Justice Ellen Gorman on March 18 and Virginia Supreme Court Justice William Mims today, March 31. Maine Gov. Janet Mills (D) nominated Rick Lawrence to fill the seat previously occupied by Gorman on March 7. Nominees have not been selected to fill the seats previously held by Himonas and Mims. 

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Redistricting news from Maryland to Wyoming and more

By: Samuel Wonacott

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. The latest on redistricting from Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Wyoming 
  2. Our partnership with TransparencyUSA makes campaign finance easy to understand and follow
  3. A preview of Idaho’s congressional races


Redistricting news from Maryland to Wyoming and more 

Congressional redistricting has been completed for 86.7% U.S. House seats, 79.3% of state House seats, and 84.9% of state Senate seats. 

Here’s an update on news from the past week.

Maryland

Maryland Circuit Court Senior Justice Lynne Battaglia ruled on March 25 that the state’s new congressional district boundaries were unconstitutional due to partisan gerrymandering. Battaglia gave the Maryland General Assembly until today (March 30) to adopt a new plan. In her ruling, Battaglia said, “It is extraordinarily unlikely that a map that looks like the 2021 Plan could be produced without extreme partisan gerrymandering.” 

Several Maryland residents filed lawsuits in December 2021 challenging the new congressional map. 

Maryland enacted the congressional district boundaries on Dec. 9, 2021, after both chambers of the Democratic-controlled legislature overrode Gov. Larry Hogan’s (R) veto of the plan. The House voted 96-41 to override Hogan’s veto and the Senate voted 32-14 to do the same. On Dec. 7, 2021, the House of Delegates passed the redistricting plan, 97-42, with all “yes” votes coming from Democrats and 41 Republicans and one Democrat voting “no.” The Senate approved the congressional map, 32-15, on Dec. 8, 2021, in a party-line vote.

WBAL-TV’s David Collins wrote, “The map allows Democrats to hold seven of the state’s eight congressional seats and the First District on the Eastern Shore, held by Republican Rep. Andy Harris, becomes more competitive.”

Michigan

Michigan’s new congressional and legislative district boundaries became law on March 26 – 60 days after the Michigan Independent Citizens Redistricting Commission (MICRC) published its report on redistricting plans with the secretary of state. 

The MICRC approved the state’s congressional map on Dec. 28, 2021, by a vote of 8-5. Two Democrats, two Republicans, and four nonpartisan members backed the plan. The five remaining members voted for other plans. As required, the adopted map was approved by “at least two commissioners who affiliate with each major party, and at least two commissioners who do not affiliate with either major party.”

Writing about the state’s congressional map, the Detroit Free Press’ Clara Hendrickson and Todd Spangler wrote, “According to three measures of partisan fairness based on statewide election data from the past decade, the map favors Republicans. But those measures also show a significant reduction in the Republican bias compared to the map drawn a decade ago by a Republican legislature, deemed one of the most politically biased maps in the country. One of the partisan fairness measures used by the commission indicates Democratic candidates would have an advantage under the new map.”

The MICRC also approved new legislative district boundaries on Dec. 28, 2021. The vote on the state Senate map was 9-4 with two Democrats, two Republicans, and all five nonpartisan members supporting the proposal. The commission voted 11-2 in favor of a proposal for state House districts, with four Democrats, two Republicans, and all five nonpartisan members supporting it.

The MICRC was established after voters approved a 2018 voter-approved constitutional amendment that transferred redistricting authority from the legislature to an independent redistricting commission. Michigan is one of eight states that use commissions for congressional redistricting and one of 14 states that use commissions for state legislative redistricting. 

Ohio

The Ohio Redistricting Commission approved new state legislative district boundaries 4-3 on March 28, the deadline the Ohio Supreme Court set for the state to adopt new maps. Gov. Mike DeWine (R), Secretary of State Frank La Rose (R), state Senate President Matt Huffman (R), and state House Speaker Bob Cupp (R) voted to approve the new boundaries, while House Minority Leader Allison Russo (D), State Sen. Vernon Sykes (D), and state Auditor Keith Faber (R) voted against.

Cleveland.com’s Andrew Tobias wrote that the commission approved a redistricting “plan nearly identical to one the Ohio Supreme Court rejected as unconstitutional.” After the vote, Huffman said the commission needed to approve a proposal by the state supreme court’s deadline, adding, “I think there’s a decent chance this map won’t meet the court’s test.”

The Ohio Redistricting Commission previously approved legislative district boundaries on Sept. 16, Jan. 22, and Feb. 24. The Ohio Supreme Court ruled those proposals violated sections 6 (A) and (B) of the state constitution. Those provisions, which came out of a 2015 voter-approved constitutional amendment establishing the redistricting commission, require legislative district boundaries not “be drawn primarily to favor or disfavor a political party.”

Wisconsin

On March 23, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed a Wisconsin Supreme Court decision that enacted that state’s new legislative district boundaries. In its unsigned opinion, the court said that the “court committed legal error in its application of decisions of this Court regarding the relationship between the constitutional guarantee of equal protection and the VRA[Voting Rights Act].” The court sent the case back to the Wisconsin Supreme Court for further proceedings, writing, “Summarily correcting the error gives the court sufficient time to adopt maps consistent with the timetable for Wisconsin’s August 9th primary election.”

The Wisconsin Supreme Court adopted maps that Gov. Tony Evers (D) had submitted. On Nov. 18, 2021, Evers had vetoed district boundaries the legislature approved. The Senate had approved the maps 21-12 along party lines on Oct. 20, with all Republicans in the chamber voting for the proposal and all Democrats voting against it. The House passed the maps on Nov. 11 by a 60-38 party-line vote.

Wyoming

Wyoming Gov. Mark Gordon (R) allowed the state’s legislative district boundaries to become law on March 25 without signing the bill (HEA 62/HB 100) lawmakers approved on March 11. The bill adds one Senate and two House districts to the legislature, bringing the totals to 31 senators and 62 representatives. Wyoming was apportioned one at-large district in the U.S. House of Representatives, meaning that no congressional redistricting is required.

In a letter explaining his decision, Gordon said, “The final legislation was amended in the waning hours of the legislative session to a version that apparently establishes some districts that appear to exceed presumptively acceptable deviation limits. Redistricting is an inherently legislative process and, therefore, I must assume this final product represents the “best effort” of this Legislature. Thus, for this reason as well as a desire to see our elections have their best chance to proceed in an orderly and proper way, I am allowing HEA 62 to become law without my signature.”

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Our partnership with TransparencyUSA makes campaign finance easy to understand and follow 

The Federal Election Commission provides a single source for researching and understanding campaign finance information for federal races. State-level campaign finance data, on the other hand, can be difficult to find and challenging to interpret—each state has its own laws and processes for reporting information. 

That’s why we’ve partnered with Transparency USA, a nonprofit, nonpartisan 501(c)(3) organization, which has streamlined access to this information in an elegant, standardized format, allowing us to provide detailed financial information for state-level races. 

We’ve been publishing content on Ballotpedia.org since 2018 through this partnership. This year, in addition to the encyclopedic content on Ballotpedia, we plan to publish several hundred articles breaking down campaign finance numbers in the 11 states TransparencyUSA covers: Arizona, Florida, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Here’s a sampling of stories we’ve already published. You can look forward to seeing many more like these in the months ahead.

To learn more about our partnership with Transparency USA, click the link below.

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A preview of Idaho’s congressional races

This year, nine candidates—two Democrats, six Republicans, and one Libertarian—are running for Idaho’s two U.S. House districts.

That’s 4.5 candidates per district, less than the 5.0 candidates per district in 2020 and 9.0 in 2018.

Here are some other highlights from this year’s filings:

  • Both incumbents are running for re-election: Russ Fulcher (R)  in District 1 and Michael Simpson (R) in District 2.
  • The only contested primary is the Republican race in District 2, where Simpson faces four other candidates. One of them is Bryan Smith, whom Simpson defeated 62-38 in the 2014 Republican primary.
  • According to Roll Call, Republicans have won 27 of the 28 U.S. House elections in Idaho since 1994. Walt Minnick won in District 1 in 2008 before losing his re-election bid in 2010.

Idaho’s U.S. House primaries will take place on May 17, 2022. Also on the ballot will be a U.S. Senate seat, governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, and all 105 seats in the state legislature.

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The busiest month for candidate filings ends with S.C. and S.D.

By: Douglas Kronaizl

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Candidate filing ends in South Dakota and South Carolina this week
  2. Nebraska’s U.S. House elections see most candidates running per district since 2012
  3. Yamhill County, Ore., recall defeated on March 22


The busiest month for candidate filings ends with S.C. and S.D.

Voters in South Carolina and South Dakota will be one step closer to knowing who is on their ballots this week. The filing deadlines for major party candidates in both states will pass on March 29 (South Dakota) and March 30 (South Carolina).

These cap off the busiest month for filing deadlines in the 2022 election cycle. Nineteen states’ candidate filing deadlines came and went in March. In a 20th state—Ohio—federal candidates had until March 4 to file, while state candidates filed on Feb. 2. 

The deadlines in South Dakota and South Carolina also place us over the halfway mark nationwide, with the 25th and 26th candidate filing deadlines of the election cycle.

In both South Dakota and South Carolina, voters will decide federal, state executive, and state legislative elections this year. 

  • Both states have one U.S. Senate seat up for election. 
    • In South Carolina, U.S. Sen. Tim Scott (R) faces his third election in eight years. Scott, originally an appointee, assumed office in 2013 and ran in a special election the following year. Scott won a full term in 2016, which expires next year. In South Dakota, U.S. Sen. John Thune (R) is seeking a fourth term. The only South Dakota Senator to serve four terms: Karl Mundt (R), who served from 1948 to 1973. Independent forecasters rate both Senate contests as Solid Republican.
  • None of the U.S. Representatives in either state have announced their retirements. 
  • Multiple state executive offices are up for election in both states, including upcoming gubernatorial races. 
    • In South Carolina, Gov. Henry McMaster (R) intends to seek a second full term. McMaster assumed office in 2017 after then-Gov. Nikki Haley (R) resigned to become ambassador to the United Nations. McMaster won election to a full term in 2018, defeating state Rep. James Smith Jr. (D) 54-46%. In South Dakota, Gov. Kristi Noem (R) seeks a second term. Noem was first elected in 2018 after defeating state Sen. Billie Sutton (D) 51-48%. In both states, other offices on the ballot include attorney general, secretary of state, and treasurer.
  • State legislative elections will also be on the ballot in both states:
    • All House seats are up for election in South Carolina this year, where Republicans currently hold a 79-43 majority with two additional vacancies. Senators serve four-year terms and will not be up for election until 2024. All 105 seats in the South Dakota Legislature are up for election this year. Republicans currently hold a 32-3 majority in the Senate and a 62-8 majority in the House. 

Fourteen states’ filing deadlines are scheduled in April and May and 10 states’ deadlines occur in June and July. Texas had the earliest filing deadline this cycle in December 2021 and six states’ deadlines passed earlier this year in January and February.

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Nebraska’s U.S. House elections see most candidates running per district since 2012

We will bring you updates about competitive elections throughout the election cycle as states’ filing deadlines pass. Today we are taking a closer look at U.S. House elections in one of those states: Nebraska.

Following the state’s candidate filing deadline on Feb. 15, 16 candidates are running in Nebraska’s three U.S. House districts, including nine Republicans, six Democrats, and one Legal Marijuana Now candidate. That comes out to 5.33 candidates per district, the highest number in the state since 2012.

The number of candidates per district will hold at 5.33 despite changes to the primary landscape in recent days. 

On March 26, incumbent U.S. Rep. Jeff Fortenberry (R) announced his resignation from Congress effective March 31. Fortenberry was convicted of three felony counts stemming from a 2016 campaign finance investigation. Fortenberry indicated that he would appeal the ruling.

Before his announcement, Fortenberry had been seeking re-election to the 1st District, where he faced competition from four other candidates in the Republican primary, including state Sen. Mike Flood (R). Flood had already received endorsements from noteworthy Republicans, including Gov. Pete Ricketts (R) and former Gov. Dave Heinemann (R).

According to Secretary of State Bob Evnen (R), the deadline to remove Fortenberry’s name from the primary ballot has already passed, meaning he will remain on the ballot alongside Flood and three other challengers.

Besides the primary, Fortenberry’s resignation sets the stage for a special election to serve out the remainder of his current term. Gov. Ricketts will select the date of that election, which must occur within 90 days of the vacancy. Under the U.S. Constitution, any vacancies in the House must be filled through an election. Typically this is a special election, though if the vacancy occurs closer to the end of a term, the district may remain vacant until the next general election depending on the state.

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Yamhill County, Ore., recall defeated on March 22

On March 22, voters in Yamhill County, Ore., voted not to recall County Commissioner Lindsay Berschauer. The final vote had 52% opposed to the recall and 48% in favor. Berschauer was first elected to the three-member board in 2020.

Recall supporters accused Berschauer of “extremism, fiscal mismanagement, and bad-faith representation” in one of the recall petitions. Berschauer said, “Disagreement over public policy does not warrant a recall in the minds of voters, as we just witnessed in Newberg,” referring to a Jan. 18 recall against two school board members in the Yamhill County town. Voters similarly defeated that recall with a 52-48% vote.

Voters have begun recall efforts against 33 county commissioners so far this year. Ten are currently underway, 18 did not go to a vote, one resulted in a resignation, one was approved, and two were defeated. Two are on the ballot in May 2022. By comparison, in the first half of 2021, 12 commissioners faced recall efforts.

Berschauer was the 16th official of any office type to have appeared on a recall ballot so far this year. Of those 16, voters recalled six and the recalls against the remaining 10 were defeated.

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The country’s last statewide mask mandate has ended

By: Samuel Wonacott

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Final statewide mask requirement ended in Hawaii March 26
  2. Don’t forget to vote in America’s Next Top Pet Tournament!
  3. An update on party committee fundraising


The country’s last statewide mask mandate has ended

On Saturday, March 26, the last statewide mask requirement in the country came to an end when Hawaii lifted its masking rules. This marks the first time since April 8, 2020 – a period of 720 days – in which no state has had a mask mandate in place. Gov. David Ige (D) announced on March 8 that he would end the requirement. 

New Jersey was the first to enact a statewide mask mandate. Gov. Phil Murphy (D) issued the order for that requirement on April 8, 2020. 

Counting Hawaii, Democratic governors in 11 states have ended statewide mask requirements since February. The last state with a Republican governor to end its mask mandate was West Virginia, which did so in June 2021.  

Since the pandemic started:

  • 39 states implemented statewide mask requirements at some point. Masking reached its widest extent in December 2020, when 38 states had mask requirements. Of those 38 states, 24 had a Democratic governor, while 14 had a Republican one.
  • Five states with Democratic governors who allowed a statewide order to expire later reinstated the order. 
  • One state (New York) had its mask requirement overturned by a court. A higher court reinstated the requirement later that day. 
  • Thirty-six states ended mask requirements through executive order, two (Kansas and Utah) ended mask requirements through legislative action. A court order ended Wisconsin’s mask mandate.

The chart below shows the total number of days each state had a mask requirement in place since the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic.

Here are a handful of other tidbits from our coverage:

  • Mississippi had the shortest mask requirement, lasting 56 days. 
  • The shortest statewide mask requirement in a state with a Democratic governor was in Wisconsin, which lasted 242 days.
  • The longest statewide mask requirement was in Hawaii, which lasted 704 days.
  • The longest statewide mask requirement in a state with a Republican governor was in Maryland, which lasted 393 days.

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America’s Next Top Pet Tournament 

In the spirit of March Madness, we are excited to announce that voting is live for our second annual presidential pet bracket competition! Pets have found a place in presidential administrations dating back to George Washington—and, goodness, have there been some interesting ones. We’re talking cows, squirrels, and yes, even badgers. 

Our contestants are off to a great start in our grrr-ueling competition. Click the link below to learn more about our players, and then be sure to cast your vote by the end of the day today to ensure your favorite pet makes it on to the Final Four-Legged round!

Our 2021 cham-paw-ion was Bo Obama. Who will take the top spot this year? The fate of these presidential pets is in your hands. 

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An update on party committee fundraising

This election cycle, three fundraising committees associated with the Republican Party have raised 3.7% more than those associated with the Democratic Party—$484.1 million to $466.3 million. 

The six party committees raised a combined $950 million in the first 14 months of the 2022 election cycle. In February, the committees raised $83 million, according to recent filings with the Federal Election Commission. 

What follows is a breakdown of those numbers broken down by committee:

  • Senate committees: In February, the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC) raised more money than the National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) for the first time since April 2021. The DSCC raised $15.0 million and spent $6.4 million, while the NRSC raised $11.7 million and spent $9.2 million. So far, the NRSC has the edge in cumulative fundraising with $134.6 million to the DSCC’s $116.9 million.
  • Congressional committees: The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) also reported its highest fundraising numbers of the cycle in February, with $19.3 million in receipts and $7.5 million in spending. The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) raised $10.0 million and spent $7.0 million. So far the DCCC has raised $177.4 million to the NRCC’s $161.5 million. 

  • National committees: Between the national committees, the Republican National Committee (RNC) raised and spent more than the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in February. The RNC raised $16.3 million and spent $22.5 million, while the DNC raised $10.9 million and spent $21.1 million. So far the RNC has raised $188.0 million to the DNC’s $172.0 million. 

Click the link below to learn more about the six party committees and their fundraising and spending efforts this election cycle. 

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The latest with school board elections this cycle

Welcome to the Friday, March 25, Brew. 

By: Douglas Kronaizl

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Five states holding general school board elections on April 5
  2. Election spotlight—Oregon’s 5th Congressional District Democratic primary
  3. #FridayTrivia: How many cases is the U.S. Supreme Court hearing during its current argument session?


Five states holding general school board elections on April 5

School districts in five states—Alaska, Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsinwill be holding general school board elections on April 5. Two of these states—Oklahoma and Wisconsin—held primary elections in February.

Ballotpedia covers elections in the largest 200 school districts by student enrollment and any districts in the 100 largest cities by population. Beyond that, we also cover every school board recall election, no matter the district’s size.

While many filing deadlines won’t come until later in the year, we are already seeing an increase in activity in the races within Ballotpedia’s coverage scope. For the 204 school board races we are covering in 2022 whose filing deadlines have passed, an average of 2.19 candidates are running per seat up for election. 

The next upcoming school board recall election on our radar is against Tim Stentiford, one of 12 members of the Regional School Unit 21 school board in Maine. That recall election is scheduled for March 29.

Recall supporters listed a loss of teachers in the district, spending on human resources, and the lack of a school board curriculum committee as reasons for the recall. Stentiford has not responded to the recall effort, though board chair Art LeBlanc said recall supporters were “focused on discrediting the work of the Board and administration for political gain.” Read more here.

The recall against Stentiford is one of the 28 recall efforts we have tracked this year. Our year-end recall analysis showed we followed more recall efforts in 2021 than any other year since we began compiling data. Already, the number of recall efforts in 2022 is greater than the total number of recall efforts in 2009, 2011, 2013, 2017, and 2019.

So far this year, six school board recall efforts have gone to a vote against 11 officials. Of those 11, four were successfully recalled from office: one in Giltner, Neb., and three in San Francisco.

If you want to stay in-the-know with the issues at play and the conversations driving board policy and governance, subscribe to Ballotpedia’s Hall Pass. Each week, we use this newsletter to bring you a roundup of the sharpest commentary and research from across the political spectrum on education as well as election analysis and information.

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Election spotlight—Oregon’s 5th Congressional District Democratic primary

Twelve states are holding statewide primaries in May and, today, we’re taking a look at another one of those battleground primaries, this time in Oregon on May 17.

Incumbent Kurt Schrader and Jamie McLeod-Skinner are running in the Democratic primary election for Oregon’s 5th Congressional District.

Schrader has represented the 5th District since 2009, but the district’s boundaries recently changed due to the redistricting process. According to data from Daily Kos, less than half of the population in the new 5th District—47%—comes from the old 5th District. “This will probably be the most difficult environment that [Schrader] has run in,” according to John Horvick, a senior vice president at DHM Research, an opinion research firm.

Schrader, a farmer and veterinarian who served in the state legislature before being elected to Congress, is a Blue Dog Coalition and the Problem Solvers Caucus member. Schrader said, “[I’ve been] working with Congress to rebuild the safety net for all Oregonians, lower prescription drug costs, make healthcare more affordable, and expand special education funding.”

McLeod-Skinner is an attorney and former Santa Clara, Calif., City Council member. She was a candidate for Congress in 2018 and placed third in the Democratic primary for secretary of state in 2020. McLeod-Skinner said, “[D.C. is not] addressing the crises we’re seeing around affordable housing, around healthcare, around childcare, around environmental issues. And that’s the work I want to do in Congress.”

The two candidates have clashed over legislative records and priorities. 

McLeod-Skinner said Schrader had “fought negotiating lower drug prices, raising the federal minimum wage, and forgiving debt for college loans,” and that “[w]hen he does vote with Democrats, it is often after working to water-down the original ideas.”

Schrader defended his voting record by citing the partisan compositions of the district and state. “I represent the people in my district and the state of Oregon, which frankly is not a blue state,” Schrade said, adding, “There are a lot of folks that are Republicans or Independents, and I’d like to think I represent the state very well this way.”

Schrader received endorsements from Planned Parenthood and the American Federation of Government Employees. U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) and the Working Families Party of Oregon endorsed McLeod-Skinner.

At the time of the primary, three race forecasters rated the general election in the 5th District as Lean or Likely Democratic.

For more in-depth coverage of the intraparty conflicts in the 5th District and throughout this year’s primary election cycle, subscribe to our newsletter, The Heart of the Primaries.

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#FridayTrivia: How many cases is the U.S. Supreme Court hearing during its current argument session?

Earlier this week, we mentioned that the U.S. Supreme Court began its March sitting last Monday, the latest argument session of its current 2021-2022 term. Argument sessions are when justices can directly question attorneys for both sides of a case in an open court.

How many cases is the U.S. Supreme Court hearing during its current argument session?

  1. 2
  2. 17
  3. 8
  4. 22


Five states with candidate filing deadlines in the next week

By: David Luchs

Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Candidates for state and federal office in New Mexico have until today to file; four more states have filing deadlines next week
  2. Candidate Connection update: One race reached 100% completion in the past week
  3. Election spotlight—Ohio U.S. Senate Republican primary

Candidates for state and federal office in New Mexico have until today to file; four more states have filing deadlines next week

March (filing deadline) Madness continues this week. Let’s check in on one state – New Mexico – as the filing deadline for candidates running for state or federal office is today, March 24.

All 435 seats in the U.S. House are up for election this year, including all three in New Mexico. New Mexico will also hold elections for 12 state executive offices, including the governorship, all 70 seats in the state House, and three of the five seats on the state Supreme Court.

Four more states will have filing deadlines upcoming next week:

  • March 28: State legislative candidates in Pennsylvania
  • March 29: All candidates for state and federal office in Missouri
  • March 29: All candidates for state and federal office in South Dakota
  • March 30: All candidates for state and federal office in South Carolina

New Mexico and South Dakota are among the seven states that will hold primaries on June 7. Pennsylvania’s primaries will take place May 17, while South Carolina’s are scheduled for June 14 and Missouri’s for August 2.

We’ll be following all these primaries as they unfold in our free Heart of the Primaries newsletters, delivered weekly on Thursdays. This pair of newsletters—one focusing on Republican primaries and the other on Democratic primaries—brings you the latest on policy differences between candidates, moves by political operatives, polling, and more. Click here for more and to sign up!

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Candidate Connection update: One race reached 100% completion in the past week

Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey asks candidates for federal, state, and local office to share what motivates them on a personal and political level. We’ll be providing regular updates on how many races have a 100% survey completion rate in Thursday editions of the Brew this year.

As of March 22, 2022, we’re tracking 19 races with final candidate lists and a 100% Candidate Connection completion rate. One of those races, the Republican primary for Kentucky State Senate District 6, reached 100% completion in the past week.

We use the term race to describe a primary, runoff, or general election for a single office or seat or for a single set of seats that are elected as a batch. For example, a school board general election for three at-large seats where each voter selects three candidates would be one race, while a school board general election for three seats elected by district where each voter is voting for one candidate would be three separate races.

Some other details about the 19 races with a 100% response rate:

  • As of this week, there are now six states with at least one race with a 100% response rate.
  • Thirteen of the 19 races are taking place in Texas.
  • Three of the 19 races are general elections.
  • Of the 16 primaries and primary runoffs, nine are for the Democratic nomination and seven are for the Republican nomination.
  • Ten of the 19 are races for U.S. House.

The Republican primary for Kentucky State Senate District 6 is between Bill Ferko and 

Lindsey Tichenor. This will be the first state legislative election in Kentucky to take place under new district lines following the 2020 census. Under the new lines, Senate District 6 covers an area northeast of Louisville that was part of Senate Districts 20 and 26 under the post-2010 district lines. In the last round of regular elections, held in 2018, Paul Hornback (R) was elected to represent District 20 by a 56.5% to 43.5% margin. The same year, Ernie Harris (R) was elected to represent District 26 by a 51.8% to 46.3% margin. Karen Berg (D) won a special election to represent District 26 following Harris’ retirement in 2020.

Here’s how both candidates responded to the question, “What characteristics or principles are most important for an elected official?”

Bill Ferko:

“Elected Officials need to listen to their voters and understand what is important for them. Frequent communication, open communication lines, surveys, community meetings, etc are all methods where the elected officials can hear the needs of the community.”

Lindsey Tichenor:

“To listen to and communicate with their constituents and to be active in their districts and know what issues are directly affecting those they represent. Our job as a representative of the people, is to be their voice in government and write legislation that upholds the rights granted within the constitution for them to have the best opportunities to prosper.”

Help us contact candidates to ask them to complete the Candidate Connection survey by sending us candidate contact information here.

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Election spotlight—Ohio U.S. Senate Republican primary

Let’s turn to Ohio for a look at an upcoming battleground primary for U.S. Senate.

Seven candidates are running in the May 3 Republican primary for U.S. Senate in Ohio on May 3, including Mike Gibbons, Josh Mandel, Jane Timken, and J.D. Vance. Incumbent Rob Portman (R), first elected in 2010, announced on January 25, 2021, that he would not seek re-election.

Matt Dolan, Neil Patel, and Mark Pukita are also running in the primary. Gibbons, Mandel, Timken, and Vance have led in fundraising, endorsements, and polling.

Gibbons, a businessman and investor, says his background in the private sector has prepared him for the U.S. Senate: “My job was to go in and convince CEOs and CFOs that they could trust me to handle the most important transactions those companies would ever do. And I have to tell you, I think it’s great practice for the U.S. Senate.” Sen. Rand Paul (R) endorsed Gibbons.

Mandel served as Ohio treasurer from 2011 to 2019. Mandel said, “when I get to Washington, I’m not just going to drain the swamp, I’m going to blow up the swamp. And yes, I’ll be taking on the secular left, yes, I’ll be taking on the radical left. But with as much ferocity and strength and force, I’m going to take on the squishy establishment RINO Republicans,” a group he says includes Utah Sen. Mitt Romney (R), Wyoming Rep. Liz Cheney (R), and Ohio Rep. Anthony Gonzalez (R). U.S. Sens. Mike Lee (R) and Cynthia Lummis (R) endorsed Mandel.

Timken has been the chairwoman of the Ohio Republican Party since 2017. Timken said her experience leading the Ohio Republican Party shows that she can unite the party: “I successfully unified the party when I became chair, and so I have a real understanding of building a broad base and coalition of support. And that’s what I’ve been working on since I announced this campaign.” On February 16, 2022, Portman endorsed Timken.

Vance served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 2003 to 2007 before working in venture capital in San Francisco. In 2016, he wrote Hillbilly Elegy, a memoir about growing up in Middletown, Ohio. Vance has campaigned on bringing manufacturing back to Ohio, fixing the country’s immigration system and completing the wall along the southern border, and breaking up large technology companies. Sen. Josh Hawley (R) endorsed Vance.

In 2016, Portman defeated Ted Strickland (D) 58% to 37.2%. Sen. John H. Glenn Jr., who served from 1974 to 1999, was the last Democrat to hold the seat, serving from 1974 to 1999.

Donald Trump (R) won Ohio by eight percentage points in 2016 and in 2020.

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