The Daily Brew: Your donation to Ballotpedia today will be matched!

Welcome to the Friday, June 7, Brew. Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. There’s a special reason to contribute on the final day of our membership drive
  2. Louisiana to decide abortion-related constitutional amendment in 2020
  3. Dallas, San Antonio mayoral runoffs headline Saturday Texas elections

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Louisiana to decide abortion-related constitutional amendment in 2020

The Louisiana legislature approved a bill last month designed to ban abortion when a fetal heartbeat is present, except in certain medical emergencies. The measure had bipartisan support, as seven Democrats joined all 24 Republicans to pass the bill in the state Senate and 17 Democrats and 59 Republicans voted in favor in the state House. It was signed into law by the state’s Democratic governor, John Bel Edwards.

Next year, voters will decide a state constitutional amendment stating “To protect human life, nothing in this constitution shall be construed to secure or protect a right to abortion or require the funding of abortion.”

The state Senate approved the amendment 33-5. All 25 Senate Republicans and eight Senate Democrats voting in favor of the amendment. Five Democrats voting against it. The state House approved the measure 78-21 with 59 Republicans, 16 Democrats, and three Independents voting in favor and 20 Democrats and one Independent opposed. A two-thirds vote is required in both chambers to refer a constitutional amendment to the ballot.

According to the Louisiana Pro-Life Amendment Coalition, which is campaigning in support of the ballot measure, the constitutional amendment would preclude a state court from ruling that the Louisiana Constitution provides a right to abortion.

Alabama and West Virginia voters approved ballot measures in 2018 declaring their state constitutions did not secure or protect a right to abortion. Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey (R) signed a bill into law May 15 prohibiting all abortions in the state except those necessary to prevent a serious health risk to the woman. A West Virginia law in existence since 1882 that includes jail time for performing or receiving an abortion has been ruled unconstitutional by a federal court.

Learn more

Dallas, San Antonio mayoral runoffs headline June 8 Texas elections

We’re in a busy election period, with statewide elections in New Jersey on June 4 and Virginia’s state legislative primaries June 11. And as a bonus, there are even more elections across Texas on Saturday.

Two cities that are among the 10 largest in the country—Dallas and San Antonio—are holding runoff elections for mayor. Dallas’ runoff is an open-seat race while San Antonio’s incumbent mayor is seeking re-election.

In Dallas, the race is between state Rep. Eric Johnson and city councilmember Scott Griggs, who were the top two finishers among nine candidates in the May 4 general election. Johnson won 20.3% of the vote and Griggs 18.5%. Johnson has served in the state House since 2010 and Griggs was first elected to the Dallas City Council in 2011.

San Antonio’s mayoral runoff election features incumbent Ron Nirenberg and City Councilmember Greg Brockhouse. Nirenberg—who defeated incumbent Mayor Ivy Taylor in 2017—finished first in the May 4 general election with 48.7% of the vote. Brockhouse—who was first elected to the city council in 2017—finished second in the general with 45.5%.

We’re also covering runoff elections in Texas on June 8 for one seat on the Arlington City Council, two seats on the Plano City Council, and one seat on the Dallas Independent School District Board of Trustees.

Click here for more information on Dallas’ mayoral race    

Click here for more information on San Antonio’s mayoral race

The Daily Brew: How district maps shape the way governments run elections

Welcome to the Thursday, June 6, Brew. Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. How data technology is used in voting
  2. Denver mayor wins re-election in Tuesday’s runoff
  3. Quiz: Which state constitution has been amended more than 800 times?

How data technology is used in voting

Have you ever wondered how your local elections precinct knows which ballot to give you on election day? I never knew the technology behind it until I started working at Ballotpedia.

Earlier this year, Virginia adopted legislation that requires municipal clerks to transmit Geographic Information System (GIS) maps to local election boards and the state when they alter local electoral districts or precincts. GIS is a way of capturing, managing, and storing spatial or geographic data. It’s currently used in everything from mapping to scientific analysis to navigation.

At Ballotpedia, we’re gathering GIS information nationwide to improve our sample ballot tool. I spoke with Margaret Koenig, one of our database specialists, about this measure and how she thinks it will affect this information’s availability.

“This type of legislation is a step forward for increased education and analysis around local politics. It is an opportunity for increased precision in local election practices as well as for observers like Ballotpedia to provide highly specific and accurate voter information. My hope is that Virginia and other states will see the value in making this information readily and freely available online for the good of all citizens. It will be fascinating to watch their process and standards for this work develop.”

When voters use our sample ballot tool, we want them to see the most precise and accurate information as possible. We’re committed to placing each address correctly inside their respective districts using GIS data so we can offer a comprehensive sample ballot for everyone in the country.

Including that Virginia legislation, Ballotpedia has tracked 352 state-level bills regarding redistricting and electoral systems policy in state legislatures this year. Twenty-eight of these measures have become law. Here are some other highlights:

  • The Mississippi legislature revised the boundaries of two state Senate districts after a federal court ruled that one of them constituted an illegal racial gerrymander.
  • Colorado, Delaware, and New Mexico all enacted legislation entering their respective states into the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact (NPVIC). As I’ve discussed previously, the NPVIC is an interstate agreement to award each member state’s presidential electors to the winner of the national popular vote.
  • Utah amended provisions of a pilot project that allows municipalities to conduct municipal elections using ranked-choice voting.

Learn more about stories like this in our Ballot Bulletin, our free newsletter which tracks developments in election policy. Our June issue just came out yesterday.

June’s issue of Ballot Bulletin also discusses the status of the Michigan and Ohio redistricting cases at the Supreme Court in addition to redistricting legislation in Nevada and Washington that adjusts the census data in those states to reflect where prison inmates are counted.

Click here to read this month’s edition.

Denver mayor wins re-election in Tuesday’s runoff

Yesterday’s Brew included the results from New Jersey’s primary elections for the state Assembly. Here are results from other Tuesday elections in Colorado and California that were decided later that evening:


Denver Mayor Michael Hancock defeated development consultant Jamie Giellis to win a third and final term (Denver mayors face term limits of three terms). Giellis and Hancock were the top two finishers among a six-candidate field in the May 7 general election. Hancock received 55.8% of the vote to Giellis’ 44.2%.

Hancock was first elected in 2011 after having served seven years on the city council. A prominent issue during the campaign was the city’s response to population growth and development. Although the election was officially nonpartisan, both Hancock and Giellis are members of the Democratic Party.

Denver voters also approved Initiated Ordinance 302, which prohibits the city and county from using public funds in connection with future Olympic Games unless a majority of voters approve such funds. The measure was proposed during the city’s ultimately unsuccessful bid to host the 2030 Winter Olympic Games. Unofficial results show the initiative was approved by 79 percent of city voters.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles Unified School District voters defeated Measure EE, which would have enacted an annual parcel tax—a kind of property tax based on units of property rather than assessed value—for 12 years to fund educational improvements, instruction, and programs. According to election night results, 54% of voters were against the measure and 46% were in favor. It required a two-thirds supermajority vote to pass.

In 2019, local California voters have approved ten parcel tax measures and defeated three. Since 1983, there have been 708 local parcel tax measures on ballots in California—425 (60%) were approved, and 283 (40%) were defeated.

In another Los Angeles race, John Lee and Loraine Lundquist advanced from a 15-candidate field in the special primary election to fill a vacancy on the Los Angeles City Council. Lee and Lundquist will oppose each other in the general election August 13. Lee was endorsed by a PAC sponsored by the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce. Lundquist was endorsed by The Los Angeles Times and the Green Party of Los Angeles County.

Learn more

Quiz: Which state constitution has been amended more than 800 times?

In a story from earlier this week, I noted that one particular state constitution had been amended more than 800 times. This state’s constitution is considered the longest constitution in the world.

Name that state:

  1. Alabama
  2. Arizona
  3. Arkansas
  4. California

Warren releases climate change platform

June 5, 2019: Elizabeth Warren, Cory Booker, and Beto O’Rourke made major policy proposals on climate change, housing, and voting access, respectively.

Here’s the latest from the campaign trail.

Notable Quote of the Day

“Of course, past Democratic presidential primaries are littered with failed candidates who appealed to liberal elites — Paul Tsongas in 1992, Bill Bradley in 2000 and Howard Dean in 2004. Swiss cheese-eating John Kerry managed to clinch the nomination in 2004, only to fall to regular guy George W. Bush in the general.

But in a crowded primary, winning the well-educated lane would be no minor feat. Indeed, behind the enthusiastic wonkery of Warren and Buttigieg is a clear-eyed political calculation. Highly educated voters tend to be more politically active and more likely to donate money to candidates. They also turn out to vote at higher rates than other constituencies.”

– Daniel Strauss, Politico politics reporter


  • Thirteen Democratic candidates submitted video messages to the American Jewish Committee’s 2019 Global Forum on issues ranging from anti-Semitism to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
  • Atlantic Monthly Press released Michael Bennet’s The Land of Flickering Lights: Restoring America in an Age of Broken Politics Tuesday. Bennet tweeted, “This isn’t a memoir. I couldn’t bear to read such a thing, much less expect you to. It’s my diagnosis of what’s broken in Washington and how we can come together to fix it.”
  • Joe Biden’s national finance committee has four tiers for bundlers raising $25,000, $50,000, $100,000, or a monthly target of $100 from 10 unique contributors each month.
  • The New York Hotel and Motel Trades Council endorsed Bill de Blasio Wednesday and will send members to campaign for him in New Hampshire, Iowa, South Carolina, and Nevada.
  • Cory Booker released his housing platform Wednesday, which would include a tax credit for renters filling the gap between 30 percent of the renter’s income and fair-market rent in their neighborhood.
  • Steve Bullock wrote an op-ed in The Des Moines Register about his opposition to Citizens United.
  • During a panel discussion in South Bend, Indiana, about access to capital, Pete Buttigieg said the local use of community development financial institutions could be one example of reparations.
  • In an interview on The Michael Smerconish Program, John Delaney discussed the negative reception he received at the California Democratic Party Convention when he said universal healthcare should include an option for private health insurance.
  • Kirsten Gillibrand is participating in a discussion at The Wing SoHo in New York City with Gloria Steinem.
  • Mike Gravel tweeted about Islamophobia and Israel: “We need a foreign policy that sees Jews and Muslims as equal citizens in Israel, and is willing to find a path to peace without condoning land grabs by Netanyahu. We need to stop funding the slaughter of Muslims in Yemen. And we need to end FBI domestic surveillance of Muslims.”
  • Kamala Harris will campaign in Alabama and South Carolina over the weekend with a stop in Birmingham Friday.
  • Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez called Jay Inslee’s climate platform the “gold standard climate plan that we have right now.” She has not yet endorsed any presidential candidate.
  • Amy Klobuchar said that former special counsel Robert Mueller should testify in a House committing hearing.
  • Wayne Messam appeared in a radio segment on Miami’s 99Jamz.
  • Seth Moulton posted a series of 27 tweets on racism in the United States, mentioning Trump in a third of them.
  • Beto O’Rourke released his voting access platform, calling for automatic and same-day registration, expanded early voting, and making Election Day national holiday. The plan would also limit Supreme Court justices tenure on that court to 18 years.
  • Bernie Sanders will speak at the Walmart annual shareholders meeting in Arkansas and propose a minimum wage of $15/hour for the company.
  • In an interview on The View, Eric Swalwell discussed gun violence in schools and his plan to “ban and buy back every single assault weapon in America.”
  • During a town hall in Detroit, Elizabeth Warren announced her $2 trillion plan to create a clean energy economy. She would spend $1.5 trillion over a decade to develop and spread clean energy technology, create a National Institute of Clean Energy, and market clean energy products to other countries.
  • Marianne Williamson joined marchers protesting immigration policies in Manchester, New Hampshire.


  • The Trump administration ended cruise travel to Cuba, banning both cruise ships and educational travel programs.

What We’re Reading

Flashback: June 5, 2015

The Washington Post reported that Ben Carson’s campaign chairman, national finance chairman, deputy campaign manager, and general counsel had resigned.

Halftime report: what states have done so far on election policy

Welcome to The Ballot Bulletin, where we track developments in election policy at the federal, state, and local levels. Each issue includes an in-depth feature—such as an interview or legislative analysis—and discussions of recent events relating to electoral and primary systems, redistricting, and voting provisions.

Halftime report: what states have done so far on election policy

With more than half of the states having wrapped up their legislative sessions for the year, here’s a summary of what states have done so far on election policy.

  • Redistricting legislation: So far this year, we’ve tracked 221 bills regarding redistricting policy. Seventeen of them have become law.
    • Examples of enacted legislation:
      • Mississippi JR202: Signed into law April 3, JR202 revised the boundaries of Mississippi State Senate Districts 13 and 22. The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi had earlier ruled that District 22 constituted an illegal racial gerrymander.
      • Virginia HB2760: Signed into law March 22, HB2760 requires municipal clerks to transmit Geographic Information System (GIS) maps to local election boards, the secretary of the commonwealth, the state elections department, and the legislative services division when altering local electoral districts or precincts.
  • Electoral systems legislation: So far this year we’ve tracked 120 bills regarding electoral systems policy, addressing such issues as ranked-choice voting and the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact. Eleven of them have become law.
    • Examples of enacted legislation:
      • New Mexico HB55: Signed into law March 12, HB55 entered New Mexico into the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact. Member states agree to award their presidential electors to the winner of the national popular vote once states totaling at least 270 Electoral College votes have joined the compact.
      • Utah HB0277: Signed into law March 26, HB0277 amended provisions of Utah’s Municipal Alternative Voting Methods Pilot Project. Under the pilot project, municipalities can opt to conduct municipal elections using ranked-choice voting.
  • Primary systems legislation: We’ve tracked 11 bills this year regarding primary systems policy, addressing such issues as top-two primaries and open primaries. None of these 11 bills has become law.
    • Examples of proposed legislation:
      • Maine LD114: LD114 would have established a top-two primary system for elections for the offices of U.S. senator, U.S. representative, governor, state senator, and state representative. The bill died in committee.
      • North Carolina H994: H994 proposes establishing a top-four primary system for elections for any state or congressional office. H994 also proposes establishing ranked-choice voting for general elections for these offices. The bill is currently in committee.

In other election policy news

  • Electoral systems in Massachusetts: On May 15, the Easthampton City Council approved a charter amendment that would, if approved by voters, implement ranked-choice voting for municipal elections. The state Legislature must approve the amendment language before the measure can appear on the November ballot. If voters approve the charter amendment, ranked-choice voting would be used in Easthampton’s 2021 municipal elections. Amherst and Cambridge, Mass. have both adopted ranked-choice voting for their municipal elections.
  • Redistricting in Michigan and Ohio: On May 24, the U.S. Supreme Court stayed lower court orders in Michigan and Ohio that had struck down district plans as unconstitutional partisan gerrymanders. The court is expected to issue rulings in two partisan gerrymandering cases—Rucho v. Common Cause and Benisek v. Lamone—by the end of the month.
  • Redistricting in Nevada and Washington: In May, the governors of Nevada and Washington signed into law bills requiring state prison inmates be counted as residents of their home addresses for redistricting purposes. The U.S. Census Bureau, which provides the population data sets that form the foundation of redistricting and reapportionment efforts, counts prisoners as residents of the places where they are incarcerated. In addition to Nevada and Washington, four other states—California, Delaware, Maryland, and New York—have adopted legislation providing for adjusting the census data to reflect prisoners’ home addresses as their residences.

Legislation update: Redistricting, electoral systems, and primary systems bills

The maps below show which states are considering redistricting, electoral systems, and primary systems legislation. A darker shade of red indicates a greater number of relevant bills.

Redistricting legislation as of June 3, 2019

Electoral systems legislation as of June 3, 2019

Primary systems legislation as of June 3, 2019

Primary systems June 2019 map.png

The Daily Brew: At least one presidential candidate will be excluded from the first debate

Welcome to the Wednesday, June 5, Brew. Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Bennett meets fundraising threshold, Biden & Warren release climate proposals
  2. New Jersey state Assemblyman loses primary for first time this decade
  3. Approaching the one-year anniversary of Janus 

Bennett meets fundraising threshold, Biden & Warren release climate proposals

Every day in this presidential primary cycle features a new public policy or political battle. Yesterday’s daily presidential briefing covered one of each.

First, Colorado Sen. Michael Bennett announced that he had met the fundraising threshold for the first set of Democratic presidential debates. This means he received campaign donations from at least 65,000 unique donors and a minimum of 200 unique donors per state in at least 20 states.

Bennett’s qualification means that 21 Democratic candidates have met the thresholds to participate in the first set of debates to be held on June 26 and 27 in Miami, Florida. Since the Democratic National Committee has said that only 20 candidates will participate, the following tie-breaking criteria will be applied, in order:

  1. Candidates who have achieved both the polling and fundraising thresholds,
  2. Candidates with the highest polling average in three national or early state polls, and
  3. Candidates with the highest number of contributors.

As we highlighted last week, 13 candidates have met both the polling and fundraising requirements and have therefore satisfied the first tiebreaker. The remaining candidates have until next week—two weeks before the first debate—to achieve the fundraising and polling thresholds.

The other lead story in yesterday’s newsletter was Joe Biden’s release of his climate change platform that sets a goal of net-zero emissions by 2050. He joined Elizabeth Warren in issuing climate proposals on Tuesday emphasizing federal spending on research and development to develop clean energy.

Subscribe to our Daily Presidential News Briefing to follow-along with other policy proposals as they are released.

If you sign up in time to get this morning’s edition, you’ll receive one of my favorite weekly features—a look at which candidates made the top five in spending on Facebook advertising the previous week. It’s a great snapshot of one of the campaign tactics these candidates.


Subscribe here

New Jersey state Assemblyman loses primary for first time this decade

New Jersey held statewide primaries yesterday for all 80 seats in the state Assembly. The General Assembly is comprised of 40 multi-member districts, with two representatives from each district. In the primaries, the top two candidates from each party advance to the general election.

Four of the 80 incumbent members of the state Assemblyone Democrat and three Republicansdid not seek re-election. Twenty-five incumbents faced at least one primary challenger. Twenty-four incumbentsfrom 13 districtswon their respective primaries and advanced to the general election.

In District 8, Jean Stanfield won the Republican primary over incumbent Joe Howarth. Howarth, who was initially elected to the Assembly in 2015, is the first incumbent to be defeated in a state Assembly primary this decade.

The New Jersey General Assembly currently has 54 Democrats and 26 Republicans. There are no Assembly districts currently under split party control-that is, represented by one Democrat and one Republican.

Learn more 

Approaching the one-year anniversary of Janus

The one-year anniversary of the Supreme Court’s issuance of its decision in Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees is later this month. The Court held that public sector unions cannot require non-member employees to pay agency fees covering the costs of non-political union activities, thus overturning the precedent established in Abood v. Detroit Board of Education in 1977.

Typically, when SCOTUS rules on a case, a chain reaction occurs based on the ruling. One aftermath will often be how state legislatures pass legislation in response.

Since Janus, we’ve been closely following the state-level responses. If you subscribe to our Union Station newsletter, you are familiar with that coverage.

Twenty-eight states have adjourned their state legislative sessions in 2019, with legislatures in another six states expected to adjourn in June.

We’re currently tracking 101 pieces of legislation dealing with public-sector employee union policy in our free weekly newsletter, Union Station. Each edition keeps you abreast of legislation, court decisions, and national trends that affect public-sector unions.

For example, the Connecticut state House passed a bill last week that would make several changes to the state’s public-sector labor laws. The measure would, among other things, require public employers to furnish unions with information about newly hired and current employees, who would then have to consent to provide their personal contact information to unions. The bill is awaiting action by the state Senate and governor. The Connecticut legislature is scheduled to adjourn at midnight tonight.

On June 26, join us for a webinar discussing the court case and its effects, including our analysis of how it affected union membership in the past year. It figures to be a really interesting discussion on how the Court’s ruling has impacted a nationwide policy issue. Click the link below to register!

Register now!

Bennet becomes 21st Democrat to qualify for primary debate

June 4, 2019: Michael Bennet received 1 percent support in his third qualifying polling for the first primary debate. Joe Biden released his $5 trillion climate change platform.

Here’s the latest from the campaign trail.

Trivia Tuesday

Which third party candidate received the highest share of the popular vote?

  1. George Wallace→
  2. Robert LaFollette→
  3. Theodore Roosevelt→
  4. Ross Perot→

Notable Quote of the Day

“The maneuvering [in Democratic-leaning states] underscores how Trump is trying to capitalize on his vast financial and organizational advantage over Democrats. Yet it also illustrates how the president, whose own polling shows him falling behind in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, is seeking out additional routes to a second term.”

– Alex Isenstadt, Politico reporter


  • Michael Bennet qualified for the first Democratic presidential primary by receiving 1 percent in a third qualifying poll. He is the 21st candidate to qualify for the 20 spots on stage.
  • Joe Biden released his $5 trillion climate change platform that sets a goal of net-zero emissions by 2050. His plan also calls for an investment of $400 billion in clean energy research and innovation.
  • Bill de Blasio visited Albany, New York, to outline his legislative priorities for New York City, including updating rent protection laws, marijuana legalization, and changing specialized high school admissions to address racial disparities.
  • New York Magazine surveyed the early and large Iowa campaign operations of Cory Booker and Elizabeth Warren
  • Steve Bullock will be in San Francisco, California, for a fundraiser Tuesday.
  • In an NBC News interview, Pete Buttigieg said he wanted to depoliticize the Supreme Court by expanding the court to 15 members: five Democrats, five Republicans, and five others who are chosen by the 10 partisan justices. He also participated in a town hall on MSNBC Monday night.
  • Julián Castro released his policy platform on policing Monday. He called for establishing national standards for law enforcement conduct, increasing federal oversight of excessive force, and demilitarizing the police to improve community relations.
  • Kirsten Gillibrand defended her call for Al Franken’s resignation in 2018 after Buttigieg said in a town hall that “would not have applied that pressure at that time before we knew more” about sexual misconduct allegations against him.
  • In an interview on Press Play, John Hickenlooper discussed moving towards a public option for health insurance, working with the oil and gas industry, and marijuana legalization.
  • Jay Inslee wrote a letter to Democratic National Committee Chairman Tom Perez calling for a debate dedicated exclusively to climate change.
  • Beto O’Rourke has hired 37 new staff members in Iowa, bringing his team in the state up to 44.
  • Tim Ryan released a statement clarifying his position on impeachment. While Ryan said he did not expect a conviction due to Republican leadership, he called the inquiry necessary to “begin to cut the cancer of corruption out of government.”
  • Bernie Sanders wrote an op-ed in The New York Times detailing his family’s financial struggles and his position on wealth inequality.
  • Eric Swalwell appeared on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah Monday night.
  • Warren is expanding her operation in Iowa. State communications director Jason Noble said new hires would be announced June 15 with at least 60 staff members on the payroll.
  • Marianne Williamson will campaign in Nashua, New Hampshire, Tuesday.


  • Donald Trump is targeting New Hampshire, New Mexico, and Nevada—none of which have been won by a Republican presidential nominee since 2004—with campaign staff sent to each state.

What We’re Reading

Flashback: June 4, 2015

Rick Perry launched his presidential campaign in Texas. He previously ran for president in 2012.

The Daily Brew: Only or every in the state constitution—Alabama voters will have their say in 2020

Welcome to the Tuesday, June 4, Brew. Here’s what’s in store for you as you start your day:

  1. Alabama voters to decide a constitutional amendment in 2020 that requires voters be citizens
  2. Federal Register totals 25,492 pages so far in 2019
  3. Denver mayoral runoff headlines Tuesday’s elections

Alabama voters to decide a constitutional amendment in 2020 that requires voters be citizens

Alabama voters will decide in 2020 whether to amend the state constitution to state that “only a citizen of the United States,” rather than “every citizen of the United States,” has the right to vote in Alabama.  

According to and, the word every refers to the individual members of a group or set without exception whereas the word only means just the specific members of a particular group or category.

Joshua Jones of Citizen Voters, a group advocating for similar amendments in other states, told the Alabama Political Reporter, “Most people don’t realize cities around the country are already opening municipal elections to non-citizen voters. This constitutional amendment will ensure that trend never comes to Alabama.”

Senate President Del Marsh (R) introduced the amendment. The state Senate approved it unanimously with eight members—three Democrats and five Republicans—absent or not voting. The state House also passed the measure unanimously with 14 Democratic members abstaining and three members—two Democrats and one Republican—absent or not voting. Republicans have a 27-8 majority in the state Senate and a 76-28 majority in the state House.

Voters in North Dakota approved a similar initiative in 2018. Measure 2 amended the North Dakota Constitution to state that “only a citizen” rather than “every citizen” of the U.S. can vote in federal, state, and local elections. It passed by a vote of 66% to 34%. Similar initiatives have been proposed in Colorado and Florida targeting the 2019 and 2020 ballots, respectively.

Neither Alabama nor any of the state’s local jurisdictions currently allow non-citizens to vote in elections. Congress passed a law in 1996 prohibiting non-citizens from voting in federal electionssuch as for president, the U.S. House, or U.S. Senatebut did not address state or local elections. San Francisco and several local governments in Maryland have permitted non-citizens to vote in certain local elections.

During this year’s legislative session, the Alabama Legislature referred a total of five constitutional amendments to the 2020 ballot. The legislature may also approve constitutional amendments during its 2020 session which voters will also decide in 2020. In Alabama, a 60 percent vote is needed in each chamber of the legislature to refer a constitutional amendment to the ballot for voter consideration.

The legislature may also refer additional amendments to the 2020 ballot during that year’s legislative session. Since 1997, the legislature has placed an average of eight measures per year on the ballot in even-numbered years and 81% have been approved during this time. According to law professor Susan Pace Hamill—in an article on the Encyclopedia of Alabama—the Alabama state constitution has been amended more than 800 times since 1901 and is the longest constitution in the world.

Learn more

Federal Register totals 25,492 pages so far in 2019

Last week, the number of pages in the Federal Register increased by 1,130 pages, bringing the year-to-date total to 25,492 pages. It featured a total of 432 documents, including 347 notices, four presidential documents, 40 proposed rules, and 41 final rules.

The Federal Register is a daily journal of federal government activity that includes presidential documents, proposed and final rules, and public notices. It is a common measure of an administration’s regulatory activity.

During the same week in 2018, the number of pages in the Federal Register increased by 1,148 pages. As of May 31, the 2019 total trailed the 2018 total by 52 pages.

The Trump administration has added an average of 1,159 pages to the Federal Register each week in 2019 as of May 31. In 2018, the Trump administration added an average of 1,301 pages to the Federal Register each week. Over the course of the Obama administration, the Federal Register increased by an average of 1,658 pages per week.

Click here to find yearly information about additions to the Federal Register from 1936 to 2016

Ballotpedia maintains page counts and other information about the Federal Register as part of its Administrative State Project. It includes information about the administrative and regulatory activities of the United States government., as well as concepts, laws, court cases, executive orders, scholarly work, and other material related to the administrative state.

To stay up to date on actions at the federal and state level related to rulemaking, the separation of powers, and due process, subscribe to our free monthly Checks and Balances newsletter.

Learn more

Denver mayoral runoff headlines Tuesday’s elections

Today is Tuesday, which normally means it’s Election Day in multiple states across the country. Believe it or not, but last week was the first Tuesday without an election for our team since January. We’re excited to be back at our computers tonight when we’re covering elections in California, Colorado, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Here are some highlights:


Two state Senate districts are holding general elections between the top two finishers from primaries that were held on March 26. In District 1, two Republicans are looking to succeed Ted Gaines (R), who was elected to the California State Board of Equalization in 2018.

In District 33, Lena Gonzalez (D) and Jack Guerrero (R) finished first and second, respectively, out of a 12-candidate field in the primary election. The seat became vacant after Ricardo Lara (D) was elected last November to serve as California’s insurance commissioner.

Los Angeles

Voters will elect a successor to Mitchell Englander—who had been the only Republican on the Los Angeles City Council and who resigned last year. Fifteen candidates are running to succeed him. If no candidate receives a majority of the vote, a general election between the top two finishers will be held on August 13.

Los Angeles school district voters will also decide whether to adopt a parcel tax—a kind of property tax based on units of property rather than assessed value—for 12 years to fund educational improvements, instruction, and programs. School district officials estimate that the tax would raise $500 million per year. A two-thirds (66.67 percent) supermajority vote is needed for approval.


Two-term incumbent Michael Hancock faces urban development consultant Jamie Giellis in the runoff election for mayor.

Denver voters will also decide runoffs for the office of city clerk and recorder, five seats on the city council, and Initiated Ordinance 302, which would prohibit the city and county from using public funds in connection with future Olympic Games unless a majority of voters approve at a municipal election.

New Jersey

New Jersey is holding statewide primary elections for all 80 seats in the state Assembly. Members of the state Senate are not up for election until 2021.

Seventy-six of 80 Assembly incumbents are running for re-election, meaning four seats—5%—are open. Twenty-six of those 76 incumbents have contested primaries. Since the state uses multi-member districts, these are cases where at least three candidates are running from the same party. No New Jersey state Assembly incumbents were defeated in primaries from 2011 to 2017.

Learn more

New Jersey lawmakers consider overriding veto of expanded donor disclosure requirements

New Jersey legislators are considering overriding the governor’s conditional veto of S1500, a bill that would require 501(c)(4)s, super PACs, and other entities to disclose donors who contribute $10,000 or more. A meeting scheduled for May 30 between lawmakers and the governor to discuss the bill was postponed. (Source:

  • What does the governor say? In his May 13 veto statement, Gov. Phil Murphy (D) said, “I commend my colleagues in the Legislature for seeking to ensure that so-called ‘dark money’ is brought out into the open. However, I am mindful that such efforts must be carefully balanced against constitutionally protected speech and association rights. Because certain provisions of Senate Bill No. 1500 (Fifth Reprint) may infringe on both, and because the bill does not go far enough in mandating disclosures of political activity that can be constitutionally required, I cannot support it in its current form.” With his conditional veto, Murphy stated his objections to the bill and proposed amendments to address them. This differs from an absolute veto, which is an outright gubernatorial rejection of a proposed law. Both are subject to the same override provisions.
  • What are lawmakers saying?
    • Assemblyman Andrew Zwicker (D), a primary sponsor of S1500, said, “We are actively discussing the possibility of a veto override. It is not my preference. But I do feel very strongly that this is a good government bill and we need to act now.”
    • Senator Troy Singleton (D), another S1500 sponsor, said, “I think the atmosphere was challenged a little bit by some of the governor’s comments. [We] took offense to the idea that what we sent was somehow weaker than what was sent back by the governor’s office … we didn’t want to have the discussion steeped in emotion. We’re trying to take a step back to see if there’s a path forward.”
  • How can the legislature override the veto? The legislature can, by a two-thirds majority vote in each chamber, override Murphy’s veto and enact the bill. This means 54 assembly members and 27 senators would have to vote in favor of an override. The Senate approved the bill 33-0, with seven members not voting. The Assembly approved the bill 60-1, with two members not voting and 17 abstaining. Democrats have a 26-14 majority in the Senate and a 54-26 majority in the Assembly. The Legislature’s last successful override of a gubernatorial veto was in 1997.
  • What does the legislation propose?
    • As adopted, S1500 would define an independent expenditure committee as any person or group of persons organized under sections 501(c)(4) or 527 of the Internal Revenue Code spending $3,000 or more annually to influence or provide political information about any of the following:
      • “the outcome of any election or the nomination, election, or defeat of any person to any state or local elective public office”
      • “the passage or defeat of any public question, legislation, or regulation”
    • Under S1500, independent expenditure committees would be required to disclose all expenditures exceeding $3,000. These committees would also be required to disclose the identities of donors contributing $10,000 or more.

The big picture

Number of relevant bills by state: We’re currently tracking 72 pieces of legislation dealing with donor disclosure. On the map below, a darker shade of green indicates a greater number of relevant bills. Click here for a complete list of all the bills we’re tracking.

Number of relevant bills by current legislative status:

Number of relevant bills by partisan status of sponsor(s):

Recent legislative actions

Below is a complete list of legislative actions taken on relevant bills in the past two weeks. Bills are listed in alphabetical order, first by state then by bill number. Know of any legislation we’re missing? Please email us so we can include it on our tracking list.

  • New Hampshire SB105: This bill would establish disclosure requirements for certain contributions made to inaugural committees.
    • House Election Law Committee reported favorably May 21.
  • New Hampshire SB156: This bill would require that political contributions made by limited liability companies be allocated to individual members in order to determine whether individuals have exceeded contribution limits.
    • House Election Law Committee reported favorably May 21.

Connecticut House of Representatives approves omnibus public-sector union bill

On May 29, 2019, the Connecticut House of Representatives voted 83-58 to approve HB06935, an omnibus public-sector union bill.

  • What would the bill do? If approved, the bill would make several changes to the state’s public-sector labor laws:
    • It would require public employers to furnish unions with information about newly hired and current employees. Employees would have to consent to provide personal contact information to unions, such as home addresses and phone numbers.
    • It would require employers to grant unions access to new employee orientations. It would also authorize unions to use public facilities and resources in order to communicate with members.
    • It would authorize unions to maintain dues deduction authorization records. It would require employees to revoke or revise their authorizations directly with their unions.
    • It would prohibit employers from deterring or discouraging employees or applicants from joining or remaining in a union. It would also bar unions from contacting employees who have indicated that they do not want to be contacted.
  • What comes next? The bill now goes to the Connecticut State Senate. If the Senate approves the bill, it would then go to Gov. Ned Lamont (D) for his action. The General Assembly is scheduled to adjourn June 5.
    • Political context: Connecticut is a Democratic trifecta, meaning Democrats control the governorship and both chambers of the state legislature. Connecticut has been a Democratic trifecta since 2011.

The big picture

Number of relevant bills by state: We are currently tracking 101 pieces of legislation dealing with public-sector employee union policy. On the map below, a darker shade of green indicates a greater number of relevant bills. Click here for a complete list of all the bills we’re tracking.

Number of relevant bills by current legislative status:

Number of relevant bills by partisan status of sponsor(s):

Recent legislative actions

Below is a complete list of legislative actions taken in the last week. Bills are listed in alphabetical order, first by state then by bill number.

  • Connecticut HB06935: This bill would require public employers to provide unions with access to new employee orientations.
    • House approved amended bill May 29.
  • Massachusetts H3825: This bill would authorize employers to disclose personal employee information to unions. It would also permit unions to require non-members to pay for the costs associated with grievance and arbitration proceedings. It would require employers to provide unions with access to employees, and it would allow for dues deduction authorizations to be irrevocable for a period of up to one year.
    • Labor and Workforce Development Committee reported favorably and referred to House Ways and Means Committee May 30.
  • Nevada SB135: This bill would provide for collective bargaining rights for state employees.
    • Senate Finance Committee Hearing May 29.
  • Oregon HB2016: This bill would require public employers to grant paid time to employees participating in certain union activities. It would also require employers to furnish unions with access to employees.
    • Second reading in the Senate May 30.
  • Rhode Island S0712: This bill would authorize unions to impose fees on non-members for administrative costs. It would require employers to notify unions within five days of hiring new employees. It would also require employees to file written notice with the state controller in order to discontinue dues payroll deductions.
    • Senate Labor Committee reported substitute favorably May 29.

2020 Democrats gather in California for state convention

May 31, 2019: Fourteen Democratic presidential candidates will speak at the California Democratic Party State Convention. Donald Trump announced a 5 percent tariff rate on goods from Mexico.

Here’s the latest from the campaign trail.

Brad Parscale served as a digital media advisor to President Trump (R) during the 2016 campaign and was responsible for the campaign’s Facebook outreach that year.

Previous campaign work:

  • 2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign, digital and media advisor

Other experience:

  • 2005-2018: Parscale Media, owner
  • 2011-2017: Giles-Parscale, Inc., president

What he says about Trump:

“When the President and this campaign gets ready to go full speed again, the President will turn on every ignition switch that’s necessary to get the enthusiasm back. Anyone who doesn’t think that this president will go 5 million miles an hour, day and night, to bring enthusiasm back and talk about what he can do next — they don’t know him.”

Notable Quote of the Day

“Some Democratic presidential campaigns have dispatched staffers to comb through tape of the Republicans’ 2016 debates, studying ways to break through the noise, like a zinger-ready Carly Fiorina did, or to avoid getting embarrassed, like a robotic Marco Rubio.

Others have started blocking off time in their schedules to stand their candidate in a semi-circle with nine other people mock-jockeying for attention as practice. 

Others still have aides drilling candidates on the policy questions they’re most likely to face whenever they get a free second on the road. Some have simply thrown up their collective hands and decided it’s not worth doing any of this for a few more weeks.

But each of the 20-something campaign teams … has come to at least one joint conclusion. No one has any idea how on earth a candidate is supposed to be fully prepared for the first debates.”

– Gabriel Debenedetti, New York Magazine political reporter


  • Fourteen 2020 presidential candidates will speak at the California Democratic Party State Convention over the weekend: Cory Booker, Pete Buttigieg, Julián Castro, John Delaney, Tulsi Gabbard, Kirsten Gillibrand, Kamala Harris, John Hickenlooper, Jay Inslee, Amy Klobuchar, Beto O’Rourke, Bernie Sanders, Eric Swalwell, and Elizabeth Warren.
  • Michael Bennet will make his first presidential campaign visit to South Carolina Friday with stops in Columbia and Fort Mill.
  • In a CNN town hall Thursday night, Bennet said he opposed eliminating private insurers under Medicare for All and that Congress should not begin impeachment proceedings against Trump.
  • Joe Biden attended a Memorial Day service for Gold Star families in Delaware Thursday and spoke of his son Navy veteran Beau Biden, who died four years ago from brain cancer.
  • In an interview with ABC News, Bill de Blasio continued to criticize Biden for his defense of the 1994 crime bill.
  • The Senate Leadership Fund released a negative ad targeting Steve Bullock. “Steve Bullock’s running for president while Montana is still paying for his salary and for Montana Highway Patrol to travel on his out-of-state political trips,” the ad’s narrator says. “Would your boss pay for your next job search?”
  • Castro will participate in a Fox News town hall moderated by Bret Baier and Martha MacCallum and filmed live in Phoenix, Arizona, June 13.
  • Mike Gravel, along with Booker, Gabbard, and Harris, said that sex work should be decriminalized.
  • Greenpeace USA released its scores for the 2020 Democratic presidential candidates’ records on climate change and fossil fuels. Inslee received an A- grade, while Biden, Hickenlooper, and Tim Ryan received the lowest with grades of D-.
  • Klobuchar and Sanders added staff in South Carolina. Klobuchar hired Angela Kouters as her state director. Sanders brought on Charleston City Council member Kwadjo Campbell as his state director, along with five other hires in the state.
  • Seth Moulton tweeted his support for New Hampshire becoming the 21st state to abolish the death penalty.
  • During an appearance on The View, Warren discussed Mueller’s statement and childcare costs.


  • Donald Trump announced Thursday that the U.S. would begin imposing a 5 percent tariff on all goods from Mexico beginning June 10. The tariff will increase up to a rate of 25 percent “until such time as illegal migrants coming through Mexico, and into our Country, STOP,” Trump tweeted.
  • In an interview on MSNBC, Bill Weld discussed the state of the Justice Department and the Mueller report.

What We’re Reading

Flashback: May 31, 2015

Bernie Sanders spoke to a crowd of 3,000 supporters in Minneapolis. For comparison, 13,000 people attended Sanders’ 2020 kickoff event in Brooklyn in March 2019.