CategoryState

Pennsylvania’s two-session vote requirement for constitutional amendments and party control of the state House

Democrats won control of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives on November 8 for the first time in 12 years. The Associated Press called 102 seats for Democrats and 101 seats for Republicans. The change in party control may affect a package of constitutional amendments passed earlier this year by Republicans in the Pennsylvania General Assembly.

In Pennsylvania, for the state Legislature to refer a constitutional amendment to the ballot, the amendment must receive a simple majority vote in each legislative chamber during two successive sessions.

On July 8, 2022, a package of five constitutional amendments was passed by both the Republican-controlled House and Senate. These amendments are:

  • An amendment that would allow a political party’s candidate for governor to choose their own candidate for lieutenant governor
  • An amendment that would say that constitution grants no right to an abortion
  • An amendment that would require voters to present a voter ID when casting their ballots
  • An amendment that would provide for the auditing of elections and election results by the Auditor General or, when the Auditor General stands for election, an independent auditor
  • An amendment that would allow the legislature to pass concurrent resolutions, which the governor cannot veto, to disapprove regulations

The amendments passed by a 28-22 vote in the Senate and a 107-92 vote in the House. In the Senate, 26 Republicans, one Democrat, and one independent passed the legislation, while 20 Democrats and two Republicans opposed the package. In the House, 106 Republicans and one Democrat voted to approve the amendments, while 84 Democrats and 4 Republicans voted against the amendments.

Currently, the Pennsylvania Senate consists of 28 Republicans, 21 Democrats, and one independent; while the House consists of 113 Republicans and 88 Democrats (with two vacant seats). Heading into the 2023 legislative session, the Senate will consist of 28 Republicans and 22 Democrats. Democrats won 102 seats in the House, but two members will be resigning. Rep. Austin Davis was elected lieutenant governor, and Rep. Summer Lee was elected to Congress. In October, Rep. Tony DeLuca died. Until special elections occur for these three seats, Republicans will hold 101 seats and Democrats will hold 99 seats.

When it comes to passing a constitutional amendment through the state legislature, most states (36 of 49) require legislatures to approve the amendments during one legislative session. Thirteen states, however, require the constitutional amendment to pass through two legislative sessions before being put on the ballot, or, in four of those states, that amendment may be passed in one session if the amendment has a supermajority rather than a simple majority of the votes.

The two-session requirement to pass a constitutional amendment through the state legislature decreases the likelihood of the amendment making it on the ballot. Between 2010 and 2022, 66 constitutional amendments were referred to the ballot within the thirteen states that require two legislative sessions or a supermajority. However, 40 other constitutional amendments did not make it through the second session in these states. If each of these states had a single session requirement, there would have been 106 constitutional amendments referred to the ballot during this time period, meaning that 37.7% of these constitutional amendments failed to make the ballot because they failed during the second legislative session.

When there was a change in party control between legislative sessions during this same time period, 79% of the constitutional amendments (11 out of 14) failed in the second legislative session.

In Pennsylvania, between 2010-2022, half of all constitutional amendments failed in the second session. Out of the 14 amendments that passed in the first session, seven passed the second session, while the other seven failed to pass.

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Incumbent Doug La Follette (D) elected to 12th term as Wisconsin secretary of state

Incumbent Doug La Follette (D) defeated Amy Loudenbeck (R), Neil Harmon (L), and Sharyl McFarland (G) in the election for Wisconsin secretary of state on Nov. 8, 2022. County canvass results published by the Wisconsin Elections Commission on Nov. 21 showed that La Follette had received 7,442 votes more than Loudenbeck, a 0.3 percentage point margin. Loudenbeck did not request a recount—an option due to the close margin—and conceded on Nov. 21.

La Follette’s new term beginning in 2023 will be his 12th term in office.

Duties of the Wisconsin secretary of state include recording the official acts of the governor and the executive department, compiling and keeping laws and resolutions adopted by the legislature, having custody of the state’s records, and authenticating certain documents. According to Wisconsin Public Radio’s Shawn Johnson, “[M]ost of the office’s responsibilities have been outsourced to other state agencies that answer to the governor.”

The responsibilities of the office were a central issue in this race, particularly concerning election administration. Wisconsin is one of five states where the secretary of state has no election-related duties. The legislature transferred election administration responsibilities from the secretary of state to a nonpartisan elections board in 1974. Since 2016, the bipartisan Wisconsin Elections Commission has overseen the state’s election administration. La Follette and Loudenbeck disagreed about whether the secretary of state should have a role in the state’s election system.

La Follette was first elected secretary of state in 1974 and served one term before an unsuccessful run for lieutenant governor in 1978. He was elected secretary of state a second time in 1982 and has since served 10 consecutive terms. La Follette said that maintaining the state’s independent election system was “[t]he critical issue in this campaign for Secretary of State.” He said, “The state of Wisconsin has been a pivotal battleground in several of the past presidential elections. … For this reason, it’s more important than ever that we elect a Secretary of State that will defend our democracy over party. As America’s longest-serving incumbent Secretary of State, I have the track record and deep well of experience to do it.” La Follette also said he wanted the secretary of state’s office to again have responsibility for business-related functions.

Loudenbeck was first elected to represent District 31 in the Wisconsin State Assembly in 2010. Her campaign website stated, “The Secretary of State’s office has fallen into disrepair and disfavor thanks to the neglect of Democrat Doug La Follette who has been in that office for forty-four years.” Loudenbeck said, “[M]y goal would be to modernize the office, to be responsive to requests for authentication of documents, to be a billion dollar board member for the Board of Commissioners of Public Lands and actively engage in the role that currently exists for the secretary of state that I see as being neglected right now.” Loudenbeck said she would advocate for abolishing the Wisconsin Elections Commission and moving election administration duties such as training, guidance, voter roll maintenance, and voter outreach to the secretary of state’s office.

In 2018, Democrats gained a state government triplex in Wisconsin when Democratic candidates defeated Republican incumbents in the elections for governor and attorney general, and La Follette was re-elected. All three offices were up for election again in 2022, and each Democratic incumbent was re-elected.

This was one of 27 secretary of state elections held in 2022.



Michigan Democratic candidates have spent $18.7 million more than Republicans

In Michigan, state-level candidates have spent $157.4 million between Jan. 1, 2021, and Oct. 23, 2022. Democratic candidates have spent $84.6 million and Republican candidates have spent $65.9 million. 

Michigan Campaign Finance Snapshot (1/1/2021 – 10/23/2022)

Top 10 Democratic candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/23/2022)

In the 2022 election cycle, 307 state-level Democrats have filed campaign finance reports with the Michigan Bureau of Elections. Here are the 10 Democratic candidates who have spent the most.

RankDemocratic CandidateTotal spent
1.Gretchen Whitmer$48,011,305.14
2.Jocelyn Benson$6,154,826.08
3.Dana Nessel$5,053,215.01
4.Darrin Camilleri$1,223,308.21
5.Sam Singh$922,908.04
6.Kevin Hertel$896,987.73
7.Padma Kuppa$838,831.88
8.Kristen Rivet$835,095.06
9.David LaGrand$818,854.52
10.Veronica Klinefelt$797,216.52

Top 10 Republican candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/23/2022)

During the same time period, 325 Republicans have filed campaign finance reports with the Michigan Bureau of Elections. These are the 10 Republican candidates with the highest reported contributions for the 2022 election cycle so far.

RankRepublican CandidateTotal spent
1.Perry Johnson$14,070,179.32
2.Kevin Rinke$10,487,714.12
3.Tudor Dixon$3,839,923.40
4.James Craig$3,535,425.97
5.Garrett Soldano$3,041,362.75
6.Jason Wentworth$1,978,004.94
7.Matt Hall$1,460,753.25
8.Aric Nesbitt$1,363,959.97
9.Kristina Karamo$992,430.73
10.Matthew DePerno$948,509.48

In some states, officeholders may make expenditures from their campaign accounts when they are not up for election. Those expenditures are included in candidate campaign finance numbers.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Florida candidate PACs submitted to the Michigan Bureau of Elections. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

StateReport NameDue Date
MI2022 Annual/January1/31/2022
MI2022 April (PACs)4/25/2022
MI2022 July (PACs)7/25/2022
MI2022 Post-Primary9/1/2022
MI2022 Pre-General10/28/2022
MI2022 Post-General12/8/2022

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



Indiana Republican candidates have spent $15.5 million more than Democrats

In Indiana, state-level candidates have spent $25.9 million between Jan. 1, 2021, and Oct. 24, 2022. Democratic candidates have spent $4.7 million and Republican candidates have spent $20.2 million. 

Indiana Campaign Finance Snapshot (1/1/2021 – 10/24/2022)

Top 10 Democratic candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/24/2022)

In the 2022 election cycle, 151 state-level Democrats have filed campaign finance reports with the Indiana Secretary of State. Here are the 10 Democratic candidates who have spent the most.

RankDemocratic CandidateTotal spent
1.Destiny Scott Wells$485,075.18
2.Woodrow Myers$404,907.01
3.Philip Kelly GiaQuinta$295,538.03
4.James David Ford$271,591.04
5.Ted Connor$199,950.98
6.Mitchell Gore$152,970.39
7.Terri Austin$137,185.68
8.Heidi Beidinger$130,100.23
9.Fady Qaddoura$125,893.02
10.Kristin Jones$120,295.05

Top 10 Republican candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/24/2022)

During the same time period, 223 Republicans have filed campaign finance reports with the Indiana Secretary of State. These are the 10 Republican candidates with the highest reported expenditures for the 2022 election cycle so far.

RankRepublican CandidateTotal spent
1.Eric Holcomb$1,593,815.63
2.Todd Huston$1,104,480.47
3.Kyle Walker$1,079,613.94
4.Diego Morales$904,681.88
5.Julie McGuire$647,738.76
6.Todd Rokita$547,927.37
7.Holli Sullivan$535,074.16
8.Mark Messmer$476,990.12
9.Craig Snow$471,172.76
10.Tera Klutz$460,841.91

In some states, officeholders may make expenditures from their campaign accounts when they are not up for election. Those expenditures are included in candidate campaign finance numbers.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Indiana candidate PACs submitted to the Indiana Secretary of State. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

StateReport NameDue Date
IN2022 Jan Semiannual1/19/2022
IN2022 Statewide Quarterly/Semiannual7/15/2022
IN2022 Pre-Election10/17/2022
IN2022 Statewide Quarterly11/1/2022
IN2022 Annual Report1/18/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



California Democratic candidates have spent $145.4 million more than Republicans

In California, state-level candidates have spent $378.9 million between Jan. 1, 2021, and Oct. 22, 2022. Democratic candidates have spent $233.5 million and Republican candidates have spent $118.1 million. 

California Campaign Finance Snapshot (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

Top 10 Democratic candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

In the 2022 election cycle, 268 state-level Democrats have filed campaign finance reports with the California Secretary of State. Here are the 10 Democratic candidates who have spent the most.

RankDemocratic CandidateTotal spent
1.Gavin Newsom$25,580,140.56
2.Rob Bonta$13,241,193.89
3.Yvonne Yiu$10,281,809.86
4.Steven Glazer$6,240,610.77
5.Melissa Hurtado$5,695,190.24
6.Ken Cooley$5,249,316.37
7.Marc Levine$4,694,065.47
8.Malia Cohen$4,648,471.16
9.Catherine Blakespear$4,624,061.66
10.Jim Cooper$4,052,752.27

Top 10 Republican candidates, by expenditures (10/22/2021 – 10/22/2022)

During the same time period, 151 Republicans have filed campaign finance reports with the California Secretary of State. These are the 10 Republican candidates with the highest reported expenditures for the 2022 election cycle so far.

RankRepublican CandidateTotal spent
1.Larry Elder$21,142,425.63
2.John Cox$19,321,627.53
3.Nathan Hochman$5,465,864.73
4.Lanhee Chen$5,361,527.45
5.Kevin Faulconer$3,620,461.30
6.Brian Dahle$3,284,659.73
7.James Gallagher$3,190,828.70
8.Matt Gunderson$3,104,577.13
9.Frank Bigelow$2,527,392.58
10.Kevin Kiley$2,291,886.29 

In some states, officeholders may make expenditures from their campaign accounts when they are not up for election. Those expenditures are included in candidate campaign finance numbers.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active California candidate PACs submitted to the California Secretary of State. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

Report NameDue Date
Semiannual1/31/2022
1st Pre-Election – Primary4/28/2022
2nd Pre-Election – Primary5/26/2022
Semiannual8/1/2022
1st Pre-Election – General9/29/2022
2nd Pre- Election – General10/27/2022
Semiannual1/31/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



Arizona Republican candidates have spent $40 million more than Democrats

In Arizona, state-level candidates have spent $100 million between Jan. 1, 2021, and Oct. 22, 2022. Democratic candidates have spent $29.8 million and Republican candidates have spent $69.8 million. 

Arizona Campaign Finance Snapshot (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

Top 10 Democratic candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

In the 2022 election cycle, 150 state-level Democrats have filed campaign finance reports with the Arizona Secretary of State. Here are the 10 Democratic candidates who have spent the most.

RankDemocratic CandidateTotal spent
1.Katie Hobbs$12,534,035.99
2.Adrian Fontes$2,739,995.40
3.Kris Mayes$2,508,874.29
4.Marco Lopez$1,897,852.17
5.Aaron Lieberman$1,614,102.43
6.Reginald Bolding$576,913.73
7.Christine Marsh$374,208.09
8.Lauren Kuby$322,935.86
9.Sandra D Kennedy$299,568.06
10.Morgan Abraham$298,862.90

Top 10 Republican candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

During the same time period, 176 Republicans have filed campaign finance reports with the California Secretary of State. These are the 10 Republican candidates with the highest reported expenditures for the 2022 election cycle so far.

RankRepublican CandidateTotal spent
1.Karrin Taylor Robson$23,533,059.95
2.Kari Lake$8,637,260.82
3.Steve Gaynor$5,102,284.34
4.Rodney Glassman$4,391,347.95
5.Wendy Rogers$3,193,298.61
6.Abraham Hamadeh$2,966,091.53
7.Mark Finchem$2,010,661.60
8.Dawn Grove$1,911,687.27
9.Matt Salmon$1,776,371.05
10.Andrew W. Gould$1,574,667.43

In some states, officeholders may make expenditures from their campaign accounts when they are not up for election. Those expenditures are included in candidate campaign finance numbers.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Arizona candidate PACs submitted to the Arizona Secretary of State. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

StateReport NameDue Date
AZ20211/15/2022
AZ2022 Q14/15/2022
AZ2022 Q27/15/2022
AZ2022 Pre-Primary7/23/2022
AZ2022 Post-Primary and Q310/15/2022
AZ2022 Pre-General10/29/2022
AZ2022 Post-General and Q41/17/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



North Carolina Republican candidates have spent $8.7 million more than Democrats

In North Carolina, state-level candidates have spent $61 million between Jan. 1, 2021, and Oct. 22, 2022. Democratic candidates have spent $17.3 million and Republican candidates have spent $26 million. 

North Carolina Campaign Finance Snapshot (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

Top 10 Democratic candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

In the 2022 election cycle, 291 state-level Democrats have filed campaign finance reports with the North Carolina State Board of Elections. Here are the 10 Democratic candidates who have spent the most.

RankDemocratic CandidateTotal spent
1.Mary Wills Bode$1,641,514.18
2.Sydney Batch$1,321,940.51
3.Josh Stein$1,107,601.23
4.Roy Cooper$874,738.37
5.Terence Everitt$674,626.43
6.Jay Chaudhuri$621,928.03
7.Sam Ervin$432,428.95
8.Al Platt$361,871.89
9.Brian Farkas$344,426.97
10.Kirk DeViere$291,988.83

Top 10 Republican candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/22/2022)

During the same time period, 296 Republicans have filed campaign finance reports with the North Carolina State Board of Elections. These are the 10 Republican candidates with the highest reported expenditures for the 2022 election cycle so far.

RankRepublican CandidateTotal spent
1.Mark Robinson$1,457,362.69
2.Michael Lee$1,180,425.85
3.Jim Perry$1,148,893.14
4.Brent Jackson$949,987.13
5.Tom McInnis$900,010.93
6.Trey Allen$769,518.09
7.Donnie Harrison$689,674.62
8.Timothy K Moore$643,169.55
9.Tim Reeder$599,747.78
10.John Bell$586,609.68

In some states, officeholders may make expenditures from their campaign accounts when they are not up for election. Those expenditures are included in candidate campaign finance numbers.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active North Carolina candidate PACs submitted to the North Carolina State Board of Elections. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

StateReport NameDue Date
North Carolina2022 Semiannual1/28/2022
North Carolina2022 Q1 Plus2/28/2022
North Carolina2022 Semiannual (only candidates not on 2022 ballot)7/29/2022
North Carolina2022 Q3 Plus10/31/2022
North Carolina2022 Q41/11/2023
North Carolina2022 Year End Semiannual (only candidates not on 2022 ballot)1/27/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



Minnesota Democratic candidates have spent $5.4 million more than Republicans

In Minnesota, state-level candidates have spent $40.4 million between Jan. 1, 2021, and Oct. 24, 2022. Democratic candidates have spent $22.4 million and Republican candidates have spent $17 million. 

Minnesota Campaign Finance Snapshot (1/1/2021 – 10/24/2022)

Top 10 Democratic candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/24/2022)

In the 2022 election cycle, 410 state-level Democrats have filed campaign finance reports with the Minnesota Secretary of State. Here are the 10 Democratic candidates who have spent the most.

RankDemocratic CandidateTotal spent
1.Tim Walz$9,905,440.30
2.Keith Ellison$1,763,302.73
3.Steve Simon$1,170,345.02
4.Julie Blaha$272,429.52
5.Kelly Morrison$251,883.72
6.Aleta Borrud$201,379.69
7.Erin Murphy$199,787.28
8.Lauren Bresnahan$169,622.81
9.Jamie Long$157,810.02
10.Bonnie S Westlin$153,378.20

Top 10 Republican candidates, by expenditures (1/1/2021 – 10/24/2022)

During the same time period, 368 Republicans have filed campaign finance reports with the Minnesota Secretary of State. These are the 10 Republican candidates with the highest reported expenditures for the 2022 election cycle so far.

RankRepublican CandidateTotal spent
1.Scott Jensen$5,319,258.22
2.James Schultz$1,078,267.58
3.Kendall Qualls$646,219.29
4.Doug Wardlow$524,555.52
5.Ryan Wilson$441,969.13
6.Paul Gazelka$386,649.20
7.Dennis J Smith$376,890.12
8.Michelle R Benson$370,795.80
9.Kathleen Fowke$311,614.13
10.Kim Crockett$286,378.95

In some states, officeholders may make expenditures from their campaign accounts when they are not up for election. Those expenditures are included in candidate campaign finance numbers.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Minnesota candidate PACs submitted to the Minnesota Secretary of State. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

StateReport NameDue Date
MN2022 Jan Annual1/31/2022
MN2022 Q14/14/2022
MN2022 Q26/14/2022
MN2022 Jul Semiannual7/25/2022
MN2022 Q39/27/2022
MN2022 Q410/31/2022
MN2022 Jan Annual1/31/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



U.S. weekly unemployment insurance claims rise to 225,000

New applications for U.S. unemployment insurance benefits rose 7,000 for the week ending November 5 to a seasonally adjusted 225,000. The previous week’s figure was revised up from 217,000 to 218,000. The four-week moving average as of November 5 fell to 218,750 from a revised 219,000 as of the week ending October 29.

The number of continuing unemployment insurance claims, which refers to the number of unemployed workers who filed for benefits at least two weeks ago and are actively receiving unemployment benefits, rose 6,000 from the previous week’s revised number to a seasonally adjusted 1.493 million for the week ending October 29. Reporting for continuing claims lags one week.

Unemployment insurance is a joint federal and state program that provides temporary monetary benefits to eligible laid-off workers who are actively seeking new employment. Qualifying individuals receive unemployment compensation as a percentage of their lost wages in the form of weekly cash benefits while they search for new employment.

The federal government oversees the general administration of state unemployment insurance programs. The states control the specific features of their unemployment insurance programs, such as eligibility requirements and length of benefits.

Additional reading:

Unemployment insurance

Unemployment insurance fraud



54% of state legislatures are Republican, 44% Democratic following 2022 general election

As of November 17, 2022, 54% of all state legislatures in the United States are Republican while 44% are Democratic. There are 7,383 state legislative seats in the country.

Republicans hold the majority in 56 chambers, and Democrats hold the majority in 39 chambers. One chamber (Alaska House) is organized under a multipartisan, power-sharing coalition. As of November 17, control of four legislative chambers remained uncalled following the 2022 elections. Click here for more details.

Democrats hold 860 state Senate seats and 2,396 state House seats, and lost 16 seats since September of this year. Republicans hold 1,097 state Senate seats and 2,921 state House seats, and gained 24 seats since September.

Independent or third-party legislators hold 36 seats across 14 different states, including 30 state House seats and six state Senate seats. There are 64 vacant state House seats and nine vacant state Senate seats.

Additional reading:

State senators

State representatives