CategoryState

Newcomers will represent 38% of Maine’s state legislative districts next year

Seventy-one state legislative districts up for election this year in Maine are open, meaning no incumbents filed to run. That equals 38% of the 186 districts in the Maine State Legislature.

Since no incumbents are present, newcomers to the legislature are guaranteed to win open districts. This is the most guaranteed newcomers to the Maine State Legislature since 2014.

Maine is one of 15 states with term limits for state legislators. In both the Senate and House, legislators can serve four two-year terms for a total of eight years. This year, 46 legislators are term-limited: 10 in the Senate and 36 in the House. The remaining 25 open districts were caused by legislators leaving office for another reason.

Overall, 384 major party candidates filed: 183 Democrats and 201 Republicans. That equals 2.1 candidates per district, the same as in 2020 and 2018.

There are 33 contested primaries—12 Democratic primaries and 21 for Republicans. For Democrats, this is down from 25 in 2020, a 52% decrease. For Republicans, the number increased 133% from nine in 2020 to 21 in 2022.

The filing deadline for candidates running for state legislative office in Maine this year was March 15. Candidates filed to run for all of the state’s 151 House districts and 35 Senate districts.

Maine has been a Democratic trifecta since Democrats won control of the governorship and Senate in 2018. Democrats currently hold a 21-13 majority in the Senate and an 80-64 majority in the House.

Maine’s primaries are scheduled for June 14, the seventh statewide primary date of the 2022 state legislative election cycle.

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Oklahoma governor signs unemployment insurance indexing bill

Oklahoma Gov. Kevin Stitt (R) signed House Bill 1933 into law on May 20, which will cut the maximum length of unemployment insurance benefits from 26 weeks to 16 weeks starting Jan. 1, 2023. The law will index unemployment insurance benefits starting Jan. 1, 2025, tying the length of benefits to the state’s unemployment rate. Oklahoma will provide shorter periods of benefits during times of low unemployment (with a minimum of 16 weeks) and longer periods of benefits during times of high unemployment (with a maximum of 26 weeks).

At least five states have already implemented some form of unemployment insurance benefits indexing: Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, and North Carolina.

Unemployment insurance is a joint federal and state program that provides temporary monetary benefits to eligible laid-off workers who are actively seeking new employment. Qualifying individuals receive unemployment compensation as a percentage of their lost wages in the form of weekly cash benefits while they search for new employment.

The federal government oversees the general administration of state unemployment insurance programs. The states control the specific features of their unemployment insurance programs, such as eligibility requirements and length of benefits.

For more information on Oklahoma’s unemployment insurance program, click here. For information about unemployment insurance programs across the country, click here.

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New Jersey committee approves bill that includes unemployment insurance tax credits for small businesses

The New Jersey Assembly Commerce and Economic Development Committee on May 19 approved A-3683, a bill that would give tax credits to some small businesses with an aim to offset increasing unemployment insurance taxes following the coronavirus pandemic. The New Jersey Business and Industry Association estimates businesses in the state face about $250 million in additional taxes this fiscal year and will owe an additional $600 million over the next two years.

The solvency of New Jersey’s unemployment trust fund decreased during the coronavirus pandemic. New Jersey uses a formula that triggers automatic unemployment insurance tax increases when the unemployment fund is depleted. The bill aims to reduce that increased tax burden for small employers. If the bill becomes law, companies can receive unemployment tax credits if they meet the U.S. Small Business Administration’s definition of a small business.

The bill would also require the state Department of Labor to provide a 30-day notice to employers before changes in the unemployment insurance tax rate can take effect.

The full state Assembly, the state Senate, and Gov. Phil Murphy (D) still need to approve the bill before it becomes law.

Unemployment insurance is a joint federal and state program that provides temporary monetary benefits to eligible laid-off workers who are actively seeking new employment. Qualifying individuals receive unemployment compensation as a percentage of their lost wages in the form of weekly cash benefits while they search for new employment.

The federal government oversees the general administration of state unemployment insurance programs. The states control the specific features of their unemployment insurance programs, such as eligibility requirements and length of benefits.

For more information on New Jersey’s unemployment insurance program, click here. For information about unemployment insurance programs across the country, click here.

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Missouri Supreme Court issues one decision and hears arguments in four cases

The Missouri Supreme Court has made one decision, heard arguments in four cases, and has four more cases on the docket for May.

State of Missouri v. Joshua Steven Collins was argued on Dec. 8, 2021, and the opinion was issued on May 17. The circuit court’s decision was unanimously affirmed. The case summary can be found here.

The Court heard arguments in the following cases on May 11:

  • Bruce S. Schlafly v. Anne S. Cori
  • Carfax Inc. v. Director of Revenue
  • Robert March v. Treasurer of the State of Missouri – Custodian of the Second Injury Fund
  • Travis Poke v. Independence School District

In 2022, the Missouri Supreme Court has heard arguments in 29 cases and issued 26 decisions. The Court has eight cases on the docket for May. The final four hearings for the month will be held on May 24. 

Founded in 1820, the Missouri Supreme Court is the state’s court of last resort and has seven justices. Justices are are appointed to 12-year terms by the governor from a list provided by the Missouri Appellete Judicial Comission. As of Sept. 2021, three judges were appointed by a Democratic governor and four by a Republican governor. 

The jurisdiction of the Missouri Supreme Court includes appeals concerning the validity of federal statutes and treaties in addition to state statues, state revenue laws, the right of a state elected official to hold office, and the imposition of the death penalty. The Missouri Supreme Court also has the discretion to hear appeals on questions of general interest and if a lower court’s decision is in conflict with a previous appellate decision. 



These five Indiana Senate candidates raised the most money and lost their primary

Most money raised by a losing primary candidate

General elections for 25 of 50 seats in the Indiana State Senate will take place on November 8, 2022. State senatorial primary elections were held on May 3, 2022. Republicans hold a 39-11 majority heading into the election.

This article details the five candidates in each party who raised the most money and lost their primary election. In the 2022 election cycle, eight of 25 Republican primaries and four of 13 Democratic primaries were contested. The losing candidates are shown along with the percentage of the vote they received compared to the primary winner. In cases where the race was pushed to a runoff, vote percentages for both advancing candidates are included.

Top fundraisers with unsuccessful primary campaigns this cycle

This information comes from candidate reports to the Indiana Secretary of State covering the period of January 1, 2021, through April 8, 2022.

The Democratic candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary were:

  • Todd Connor – $155,026 – District 4 (Lost primary 27% – 44%)
  • Kristin Jones – $117,570 – District 46 (Lost primary 26% – 44%)
  • Ashley Eason – $48,108 – District 46 (Lost primary 16% – 44%)
  • Karla Lopez Owens – $21,647 – District 46 (Lost primary 14% – 44%)
  • Deb Chubb – $17,811 – District 4 (Lost primary 22% – 44%)

The Republican candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary were:

  • Ron Turpin – $477,862 – District 14 (Lost primary 40% – 50%)
  • Christian Beaver – $47,653 – District 23 (Lost primary 19% – 31%)
  • Gary Byrne – $28,331 – District 47 (Lost primary 48% – 52%)
  • Evan McMullen – $12,129 – District 25 (Lost primary 44% – 56%)
  • Bill Webster – $11,099 – District 23 (Lost primary 27% – 31%)

Top fundraisers with unsuccessful primary campaigns last cycle

This information comes from candidate reports to the Indiana Secretary of State covering the period of January 1, 2019, through December 31, 2020.

The Democratic candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary in 2020 were:

  • John Zody – $49,718 – District 40 (Lost primary 17% – 81%)
  • Alex Bowman – $13,607 – District 10 (Lost primary 36% – 64%)
  • Jason Fletcher – $9,446 – District 36 (Lost primary 27% – 73%)
  • Tim Barr – $0 – District 16 (Lost primary 48% – 52%)
  • Trent Feuerbach – $0 – District 40 (Lost primary 2% – 81%)

The Republican candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary in 2020 were:

  • John Gaylor – $564,955 – District 20 (Lost primary 32% – 68%)
  • Jeffrey Wible – $24,735 – District 13 (Lost primary 39% – 61%)
  • Ethan Brown – $0 – District 7 (Lost primary 26% – 69%)
  • Terry Michael – $0 – District 30 (Lost primary 19% – 81%)
  • Tom Rhoades – $0 – District 16 (Lost primary 31% – 69%)

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Indiana PACs submitted to the Indiana Secretary of State. Federal PACs are not required to report to state agencies. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

Report Name Report Due Date
2022 Jan Semiannual 1/19/2022
2022 Statewide Quarterly/Semiannual 7/15/2022
2022 Pre-Election 10/17/2022
2022 Statewide Quarterly 11/1/2022
2022 Annual Report 1/18/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



These five Indiana House candidates raised the most money and lost their primary

General elections for all 100 seats in the Indiana House of Representatives will take place on November 8, 2022. State house primary elections were held on May 3, 2022. Republicans hold a 71-29 majority heading into the election.

This article details the five candidates in each party who raised the most money and lost their primary election. In the 2022 election cycle, 41 of 85 Republican primaries and five of 57 Democratic primaries were contested. The losing candidates are shown along with the percentage of the vote they received compared to the primary winner. In cases where the race was pushed to a runoff, vote percentages for both advancing candidates are included.

Top fundraisers with unsuccessful primary campaigns this cycle

This information comes from candidate reports to the Indiana Secretary of State covering the period of January 1, 2021, through April 8, 2022.

The Democratic candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary were:

  • Melissa Rinehart – $12,720 – District 82 (Lost primary 36% – 49%)
  • Brad Swain – $2,477 – District 62 (Lost primary 32% – 68%)
  • Kathy Zoucha – $1,194 – District 82 (Lost primary 15% – 49%)
  • Jestin Coler – $330 – District 51 (Lost primary 32% – 68%)
  • Craig Hirsty – $168 – District 88 (Lost primary 11% – 89%)

The Republican candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary were:

  • Daniel Leonard – $246,415 – District 50 (Lost primary 43% – 57%)
  • Matthew Whetstone – $148,551 – District 25 (Lost primary 26% – 39%)
  • Bryan Washburn – $64,633 – District 16 (Lost primary 33% – 49%)
  • Curt Nisly – $58,737 – District 22 (Lost primary 27% – 73%)
  • Bob Carmony – $50,496 – District 73 (Lost primary 33% – 57%)

Top fundraisers with unsuccessful primary campaigns last cycle

This information comes from candidate reports to the Indiana Secretary of State covering the period of January 1, 2019, through December 31, 2020.

The Democratic candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary in 2020 were:

  • Garrett Blad – $61,145 – District 6 (Lost primary 40% – 45%)
  • Anthony Higgs – $22,488 – District 1 (Lost primary 27% – 73%)
  • Mark Hinton – $14,600 – District 39 (Lost primary 30% – 70%)
  • Drew Duncan – $11,263 – District 6 (Lost primary 16% – 45%)
  • Cynthia Wirth – $10,285 – District 59 (Lost primary 45% – 55%)

The Republican candidates who raised the most money and lost their primary in 2020 were:

  • Leah McGrath – $153,400 – District 88 (Lost primary 43% – 57%)
  • Dollyne Sherman – $97,789 – District 93 (Lost primary 49% – 51%)
  • John Stoffel – $75,646 – District 50 (Lost primary 46% – 54%)
  • Bill Dixon – $41,300 – District 22 (Lost primary 41% – 59%)
  • J. David Hopper – $30,219 – District 58 (Lost primary 13% – 43%)

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Indiana PACs submitted to the Indiana Secretary of State. Federal PACs are not required to report to state agencies. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

Report Name Report Due Date
2022 Jan Semiannual 1/19/2022
2022 Statewide Quarterly/Semiannual 7/15/2022
2022 Pre-Election 10/17/2022
2022 Statewide Quarterly 11/1/2022
2022 Annual Report 1/18/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



Facebook was paid $166,072 from Minnesota campaign accounts; other states reported millions

In Minnesota, state-level candidates and PACs have spent $166,072 from their campaign accounts on services from Facebook in the 2022 election cycle so far. Facebook received 0.4 percent of all reported expenditures. 

According to reports filed with the Minnesota Campaign Finance and Public Disclosure Board between Jan. 1, 2021, and Mar. 31, 2022, here are the top candidates and PACs that have spent campaign funds with Facebook.

Top 10 Minnesota campaigns spending money with Facebook

Of the $166,072 spent with Facebook, 98.67 percent came from these 10 campaign accounts.

Top Campaign Expenditures with Facebook (1/1/2021 – 3/31/2022)

RankTotal Paid to FacebookNameAccount Type
1.$113,572.13Dr Jensen ScottCandidate PAC
2.$35,440.79Dennis SmithCandidate PAC
3.$4,435.35Seiu Minn State Council Political FundNon-candidate PAC
4.$3,096.34Kim CrockettCandidate PAC
5.$2,500.00Karin HousleyCandidate PAC
6.$1,765.74DFL House CaucusNon-candidate PAC
7.$907.75Thomas C FunkCandidate PAC
8.$825.00Minnesota Young Republicans Victory FundNon-candidate PAC
9.$819.53Jessica IntermillCandidate PAC
10.$500.00Climate Vote MinnesotaNon-candidate PAC

Campaign expenditures with Facebook in 12 states

Here is how spending with Facebook in Minnesota compares to 12 other states with data available from Transparency USA for the most recent election cycle:

Comparison of total campaign finance expenditures with Facebook, by state

RankStateTotal Paid to FacebookReporting Period
1California$5,290,7451/1/2021- 4/23/2022
2Virginia$4,486,8631/1/2020-12/31/2021*
3Texas$2,675,2761/1/2021 – 5/14/2022
4Michigan$194,1801/1/2021 – 4/20/2022
5Minnesota$166,0721/1/2021 – 3/31/2022
6Arizona123,1541/1/2021 – 3/31/2022
7Pennsylvania$106,5131/1/2021 – 3/9/2022
8Wisconsin$101,9781/1/2021 – 3/21/2022
9North Carolina$78,9601/1/2021 – 4/30/2022
10Florida$38,5421/1/2021 – 3/31/202
11Indiana$29,5341/1/2021 – 4/8/2022
12Ohio$19,9241/1/2021 – 4/13/2022
*Virginia’s two-year election cycles end in an odd-numbered year. The first available reports for Virginia’s 2023 election cycle are due Jul. 17, 2022.

While spending varies widely between states, no state on Transparency USA has reported more than 1.06 percent of total campaign expenditures on services from Facebook in the most recent cycle.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Minnesota PACs submitted to the Minnesota Campaign Finance and Public Disclosure Board. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

Report NameReport Due Date
2022 Jan Annual1/31/2022
2022 Q14/14/2022
2022 Q26/14/2022
2022 Jul Semiannual7/25/2022
2022 Q39/27/2022
2022 Q410/31/2022
2022 Jan Annual1/31/2023

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



Facebook was paid $194,180 from Michigan campaign accounts; other states reported millions

In Michigan, state-level candidates and PACs have spent $194,180 from their campaign accounts on services from Facebook in the 2022 election cycle so far. Facebook received 0.27 percent of all reported expenditures. 

According to reports filed with the Michigan Secretary of State between Jan. 1, 2021, and Apr. 20, 2022, here are the top candidates and PACs that have spent campaign funds with Facebook.

Top 10 Michigan campaigns spending money with Facebook

Of the $194,180 spent with Facebook, 92.58 percent came from these 10 campaign accounts.

Top Campaign Expenditures with Facebook (1/1/2021 – 4/20/2022)

RankTotal Paid to FacebookNameAccount Type
1.$65,000.00Michigan ActionNon-candidate PAC
2.$39,618.50Let MI Kids LearnNon-candidate PAC
3.$33,000.00Get Michigan Working Again (Superpac)Non-candidate PAC
4.$16,084.86For Our Future Michigan (Superpac)Non-candidate PAC
5.$6,541.65Mark HuizengaCandidate PAC
6.$5,785.19Steven GilbertCandidate PAC
7.$4,960.00Great Lakes Education ProjectNon-candidate PAC
8.$3,880.10Lana TheisCandidate PAC
9.$3,058.53Livingston County Republican CommitteeNon-candidate PAC
10.$1,849.54Northwest Wayne County State-Local PACNon-candidate PAC

Campaign expenditures with Facebook in 12 states

Here is how spending with Facebook in Michigan compares to 12 other states with data available from Transparency USA for the most recent election cycle:

Comparison of total campaign finance expenditures with Facebook, by state

RankStateTotal Paid to FacebookReporting Period
1California$5,290,7451/1/2021- 4/23/2022
2Virginia$4,486,8631/1/2020-12/31/2021*
3Texas$2,675,2761/1/2021 – 5/14/2022
4Michigan$194,1801/1/2021 – 4/20/2022
5Minnesota$166,0721/1/2021 – 3/31/2022
6Arizona123,1541/1/2021 – 3/31/2022
7Pennsylvania$106,5131/1/2021 – 3/9/2022
8Wisconsin$101,9781/1/2021 – 3/21/2022
9North Carolina$78,9601/1/2021 – 4/30/2022
10Florida$38,5421/1/2021 – 3/31/202
11Indiana$29,5341/1/2021 – 4/8/2022
12Ohio$19,9241/1/2021 – 4/13/2022

*Virginia’s two-year election cycles end in an odd-numbered year. The first available reports for Virginia’s 2023 election cycle are due Jul. 17, 2022.

While spending varies widely between states, no state on Transparency USA has reported more than 1.06 percent of total campaign expenditures on services from Facebook in the most recent cycle.

The data above are based on campaign finance reports that active Michigan PACs submitted to the Michigan Secretary of State. Transparency USA publishes campaign finance data following major reporting deadlines. State or federal law may require filers to submit additional reports.

Report NameReport Due Date
2022 Annual/January1/31/2022
2022 April (PACs)4/25/2022
2022 July (PACs)7/25/2022
2022 Post-Primary9/1/2022
2022 Pre-General10/28/2023
2022 Post-General12/8/2022

This article is a joint publication from Ballotpedia and Transparency USA, who are working together to provide campaign finance information for state-level elections. Learn more about our work here.



Primary watch: number of contested state legislative primaries is up 38% compared to 2020

There are 38% more contested state legislative primaries this year than in 2020, including 77% more Republican primaries and 18% more top-two/four primaries. Democratic primaries are down 7%,

These figures include elections in 20 states that account for 2,476 of the 6,166 state legislative seats up for election this year (40%).

A primary is contested when more candidates file to run than nominations available, meaning at least one candidate must lose.

Since our last update, we have added post-filing deadline data from four states: Georgia, Iowa, Maine, and New Mexico. Overall, five states in this analysis have Democratic trifectas, 12 have Republican trifectas, and three have divided governments.

Of the 20 states in this analysis, 18 are holding partisan primaries. Two states—California and Nebraska—use top-two primaries.

The number of Democratic primaries has increased in nine states, decreased in seven, and remains the same in two. The number of Republican primaries has increased in 17 states and decreased in one. The table below shows partisan statistics for the three states with the largest increases and decreases so far.

In addition to a state’s political makeup and party activity, redistricting is another reason for an increase in primary competitiveness.

After redistricting, some states—like Arkansas—hold elections for every district, while in other years, fewer districts are up each cycle. This creates more opportunities for primaries to occur. Or, like in West Virginia, redistricting creates new districts and, by extension, more primary opportunities.



Percentage of New Mexico state legislative incumbents facing primaries at its highest since 2014

Twelve of the 57 New Mexico state legislators running for re-election—eight Democrats and four Republicans—face contested primaries. That equals 21% of incumbents seeking re-election, the highest rate since 2014. The remaining 45% of incumbents are not facing primary challengers.

While there are fewer incumbents in contested primaries this year than in 2020 (12, down from 20), a higher percentage of incumbents running for re-election face contested primaries than in 2020.

The state House of Representatives holds elections in its 70 districts every two years. The state Senate, on the other hand, holds elections every four years to coincide with presidential elections. Only the House districts are up for election this year.

Despite the fact that only one chamber is holding elections this year, the number of open districts is at its highest since 2014. An open seat is one where no incumbents filed to run. This means 18.6% of the districts holding elections this year will be represented by newcomers.

Open districts most commonly exist when an incumbent chooses not to seek re-election. During redistricting, open districts might also exist if an incumbent is drawn into a new district, leaving their old district open.

In New Mexico, all 13 open districts were caused by incumbents choosing not to seek re-election. Every incumbent who filed for re-election did so in the district he or she represented before redistricting.

The filing deadline for candidates running for state legislative office in New Mexico this year was March 24. Candidates filed to run for all of the state’s 70 House districts.

Overall, 129 major party candidates filed to run: 69 Democrats and 60 Republicans. That’s 1.8 candidates per district, down from 2.1 in 2020 but up from 1.7 in 2018.

New Mexico has been a Democratic trifecta since voters elected Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) in 2018. Democrats currently hold a 26-15-1 majority in the Senate and a 44-24-1 majority in the House.

New Mexico’s state legislative primaries are scheduled for June 7, the sixth statewide state legislative primary date of the 2022 election cycle.

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