From 2006 through 2022, a total of 1,139 constitutional amendments were proposed and put before voters. Of this total, voters approved 819 proposed changes to state constitutions. Every state but Delaware requires voters to ratify proposed state constitutional amendments.
There are four ways that proposed constitutional amendments can be proposed and put on the ballot in most states:
- Through legislatively referred constitutional amendments.
- Through initiated constitutional amendments put on the ballot through a citizen signature petition. Eighteen states allow this method of amendment.
- Through constitutional conventions. In some states, automatic ballot referrals allow voters to decide at regular intervals whether to hold a convention.
- In Florida, there is a commission-referred amendment process.
In 2022, voters in 28 states decided on 99 constitutional amendments, of which, 70 (70.71%) were approved and 29 (29.29%) were defeated.
Of the constitutional amendments, 88 were referred to the ballot by state legislatures, and 11 were put on the ballot through citizen initiative petitions. The approval rate of referred amendments was 70.70% and the approval rate for initiated amendments was 72.72%.
In Alabama, voters ratified a recompiled and updated state constitution, the Constitution of Alabama of 2022. The constitution ratification question is not counted as a constitutional amendment, but the 11 amendments that were added to the new constitution in the May and November elections are counted.
Louisiana and Texas had the highest number of proposed constitutional amendments from 2006 through 2022. In total, Louisiana had 119 amendments on the ballot in that time period and Texas had 82. Texas and Louisiana do not allow amendments initiated by voters.
While Texas and Louisiana lead the country in proposed constitutional amendments from 2006 through 2022, Delaware had zero proposed constitutional amendments on the ballot during this period. Massachusetts had one constitutional amendment on the ballot, which was approved in 2022. Alaska had two, one appearing on the ballot in 2010 and the other appearing on the ballot in 2016.
During odd-numbered years, an average of 21 constitutional amendments are on the ballot, of which an average of 17 (81.10%) are approved.
During even-numbered years, an average of 107 constitutional amendments are on the ballot, of which, an average of 76 (70.32%) are approved.