Category2022 elections

Voters addressed 132 statewide ballot measures on Nov. 8

On Nov. 8, voters in 37 states decided on 132 statewide ballot measures. As of Nov. 14, voters approved 87 (66%) and defeated 38 (29%). Seven (5%) remained uncalled; five were leaning ‘No’ and two were leaning ‘Yes.’

In 2020, 120 measures were on the ballot in November. Voters approved 88 (73%) and defeated 32 (27%). From 2010 to 2020, 67% of statewide ballot measures were approved. 

The following are the results for measures addressing a selection of topics.

Abortion: Voters in five states decided on measures related to abortion. Campaigns that described themselves as pro-choice or pro-reproductive rights were successful on each measure. In California, Michigan, and Vermont, voters approved amendments to provide state constitutional rights to abortion. In Kentucky, voters rejected an amendment designed to provide that the state constitution cannot be interpreted to establish a state constitutional right to abortion. In Montana, a measure called the Born-Alive Infant Protection Act was also defeated. 

Marijuana: Measures to legalize marijuana were on the ballot in five states. Two—Maryland and Missouri—approved legalization measures. Three— Arkansas, North Dakota, and South Dakota—rejected citizen-initiated measures. North and South Dakota have voted on marijuana legalization before. In 2018, voters in North Dakota rejected a measure. In 2020, voters in South Dakota approved a measure with 54%; however, the state Supreme Court struck down the measure. Including Maryland and Missouri, 21 states have passed laws to legalize marijuana, including 14 that did so via ballot measure.

Income Taxes: Voters decided on state income tax ballot measures in four states. In California, voters rejected an initiative to enact a 1.75% tax on personal income above $2 million and allocate revenue toward zero-emissions vehicles and wildfire programs. In Massachusetts, voters approved an amendment to enact a 4% tax on income above $1 million and allocate revenue toward education and transportation purposes. Voters in Colorado decided on two income tax-related measures, both of which were approved. Colorado Proposition 121 reduced the state’s flat income tax rate from 4.55% to 4.40%. Colorado Proposition FF reduced income tax deductions and allocates increased revenue to a program for free school meals and local school food grants. In Idaho, voters approved a non-binding question asking about a bill to establish a flat income and corporate tax structure.

Firearms: In Oregon, voters approved an initiative, Measure 114, to require people to obtain a law enforcement-issued permit to purchase a firearm. Under Measure 114, obtaining a permit requires a photo ID, fingerprints, safety training, criminal background check, and fee payment. Measure 114 also prohibited ammunition magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. In Iowa, voters approved an amendment adding a right to own and bear firearms to the Iowa Constitution. The amendment also provided that “restrictions of this right shall be subject to strict scrutiny.”

RCV: Nevada Question 3, which would enact a top-five ranked-choice voting system, was approved. In Nevada, initiated constitutional amendments need to be approved at two successive general elections. As Question 3 was approved this year, the initiative must be approved for a second time on Nov. 5, 2024. At least nine local jurisdictions voted on RCV measures. Measures were approved in six jurisdictions – Ojai, CA; Fort Collins, CO; Evanston, IL; Portland, ME; Multnomah County, OR; and Portland, OR. Measures were defeated in two jurisdictions – Clark County and San Juan County, WA. In Seattle, voters decided on a competing measure between approval voting and RCV. The measure is too close to call as of Nov. 14, with 50.35% voting “Either” and 49.65% voting “Neither.” Should “Either” prevail, the system receiving the most votes would be enacted; RCV received 75% and approval voting received 25%. 

Other Voting Policies: Voters decided on changes to voting-related policies in six states, including Nevada. In Nebraska, voters approved an initiative to require photo identification to vote. In Connecticut, an amendment to allow for early voting was approved. Voters in Ohio approved a constitutional amendment to prohibit local governments from allowing non-citizens to vote. In Michigan, voters approved Proposal 2, which added several new and existing election policies to the state constitution. One measure, in Arizona, remained uncalled. As of Nov. 14, Arizona Proposition 309 received 49.5% of the vote. This measure would require dates of birth and voter identification numbers for mail-in ballots and eliminate the two-document alternative to photo ID for in-person voting. 

Nov. 8 wasn’t the last state ballot measure election of 2022. On Dec. 10, voters in Louisiana will decide on three constitutional amendments, including an amendment, similar to Ohio’s, to prohibit local governments from allowing non-citizens to vote. The other two amendments would require Senate confirmation for appointees to the State Civil Service Commission and State Police Commission.

Earlier in 2022, voters in four states decided on five ballot measures. Voters approved three and rejected two of these measures.



U.S. Rep. Vicente Gonzalez Jr. (D) defeats U.S. Rep. Mayra Flores (R) in TX-34

U.S. Rep. Vicente Gonzalez Jr. (D) defeated U.S. Rep. Mayra Flores (R) in the general election for Texas’ 34th Congressional District on Nov. 8, 2022. This election was one of two U.S. House races in which two incumbents faced off in the general election.

Texas’ congressional district boundaries were redrawn after the 2020 census. According to data from Daily Kos, voters in the redrawn 34th District backed Joe Biden (D) over Donald Trump (R) 57.3% to 41.8% in the 2020 presidential election.

Gonzalez was first elected to represent Texas’ 15th Congressional District in 2016. Gonzalez’s campaign website said, “Vicente has stood by our promise to veterans, helping constituents cut through red tape at the VA and working across the aisle to prevent the shameful deportation of our honorably discharged veterans. He’s working to lower prescription drug prices, protect the benefits and healthcare of seniors, and ensure that jobs and opportunities are there for all with the ganas to work. … As a Congressman, he is delivering billions to support our schools, families, and small businesses and continues helping South Texans recover the federal benefits they are owed.”

Flores was elected to represent the old 34th district in a June 2022 special election to fill the seat vacated by Rep. Filemon Vela (D). Flores’ campaign website stated, “As the first Mexican-born woman to serve in Congress, I am fighting for opportunity and security for all those living in our amazing district. Our America First policies resonate with the Hispanic community and others who live in this district. For over 100 years, the Democrat Party has taken for granted the loyalty and support South Texas has given them for decades. But they do nothing to earn our vote or our support. And meanwhile, President Biden is killing Texas jobs, weakening border security, and weakening our standing in the world. Enough is enough.”

The Texas Tribune‘s Matthew Choi described the race as “a high-drama, multi-month affair of desperate pleas, dashed hopes and political gamesmanship that highlighted the stakes of when national forces come into play in a hyperlocal race.”

According to Insider‘s Hanna Kang and Dorothy Cucci, “As of early November, several dozen super PACs, national party committees, politically active nonprofits, and other non-candidate groups … together spent about $10.9 million to advocate for or against candidates in this race, including during the race’s primary phase. The Congressional Leadership Fund, a national Republican hybrid PAC that backs Flores, alone [accounted] for nearly half that spending.”

All 435 House districts were up for election on Nov. 8.



U.S. Rep. Neal Dunn (R) defeats U.S. Rep. Al Lawson (D) in FL-02

U.S. Rep. Neal Dunn (R) defeated U.S. Rep. Al Lawson (D) in the general election for Florida’s 2nd Congressional District on Nov. 8, 2022. Dunn received 60% of the vote to Lawson’s 40%. This election was one of two U.S. House races in which two incumbents faced off in the general election.

Florida’s congressional district boundaries were redrawn after the 2020 census. According to data from Daily Kos, voters in the redrawn 2nd District backed Donald Trump (R) over Joe Biden (D) 55% to 44% in the 2020 presidential election.

Dunn, who was first elected to represent the old 2nd District in 2016, told the Tallahassee Democrat, “My conservative principles are more in line with the people of Florida-02. … One of the many things I would like to accomplish in the next congressional session is stopping the Biden Administration’s failed policies that are driving up inflation.” Dunn said, “The Biden administration’s decisions and actions are a reckless, unnecessary disaster, choking off opportunity for everybody in America, and Al votes with this President 100% of the time. … I have and will continue to offer this district steadfast, conservative, Republican leadership to work to unleash the potential for the American economy.”

Lawson was first elected to represent Florida’s 5th Congressional District in 2016. He said, “I have served North Florida since 1982, first in the Legislature and now Congress. I put policy ahead of politics to get results[.] … From my time in the Florida Legislature until now in Congress, I have prided myself in working across party lines to make positive change for North Florida.” According to Politico‘s Gary Fineout, Lawson “tried to appeal to north Florida voters by stressing his ability to win federal funding for hometown projects as well as hitting Dunn over his vote in opposition to a new law that expands health care benefits for veterans.”

All 435 House districts were up for election on November 8.



Monica De La Cruz (R) defeated Michelle Vallejo (D) and Ross Lynn Leone (L) in Texas’ 15th Congressional District

Monica De La Cruz (R) defeated Michelle Vallejo (D) and Ross Lynn Leone (L) in the general election for Texas’ 15th Congressional District on November 8, 2022. De La Cruz is the first Republican to be elected to represent the district since it was created following the 1990 Census.

Texas’ 15th district was redrawn during redistricting after the 2020 Census to include a region of South Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border in the Rio Grande Valley. The New York Times called it “the only competitive House seat left in Texas.” Former President Donald Trump (R) endorsed De La Cruz. Her campaign focused on border security and opposition to abortion. De La Cruz discussed cultural issues as well, saying, “South Texas is not woke, but they are awakened.”

Matthew Choi and Stephen Neukam of The Texas Tribune wrote, “In the most competitive congressional race in the state, De La Cruz pushed ahead to victory, riding the momentum of a better-than-expected run in 2020 and a wave of outside funding from national Republicans eager to gain new ground in the region…De La Cruz defeated Democrat Michelle Vallejo, a political newcomer who ran on a platform of progressive social policy and close family ties to the region. Vallejo had run an aggressive ground operation and was able to rally handsome donations from across the state. But she faced a death knell after less-than-favorable forecasts led national Democrats to dedicate their resources to protecting incumbents and supporting more promising races.”

Daily Kos calculated what the results of the 2020 presidential election in this district would have been following redistricting. Joe Biden (D) would have received 48.1% of the vote in this district and Donald Trump (R) would have received 51.0%.



All candidates for Nevada State Assembly District 22 complete Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey

Both of the candidates running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Nevada State Assembly District 22 — incumbent Melissa Hardy (R) and Rick Ramos (D) — completed Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey. These survey responses allow voters to hear directly from candidates about what motivates them to run for office.

Eighty-eight of the country’s 99 state legislative chambers will hold regularly scheduled elections in 2022. The Democratic Party controls both chambers of Nevada’s state legislature. Nevada is one of 14 states with a Democratic trifecta.

Here are excerpts from candidates’ responses to the question: What are the main points you want voters to remember about your goals for your time in office?

Hardy:   

  • “A quality education in Nevada should not be available only to those with the right zip code. That is why I am a strong supporter of school choice.”
  • “Right now, Southern Nevada is facing an unprecedented crime wave and we need leaders ready to go to Carson City and make sure that the rule of law is being enforced and existing laws are strengthened to punish offenders.”
  • “We must continue to diversify our economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown us the fragility of our current economy and while we have taken steps in the past toward this goal, much work remains.”

Ramos:       

  • “We need to address out of control spending and skyrocketing inflation.”
  • “Womens choice should not be suppressed or taken away. The government should not interfere in this area between a woman and her dr.”
  • “School safety for teachers and students”

Click on candidates’ profile pages below to read their full responses to this and other questions.

We ask all federal, state, and local candidates with profiles on Ballotpedia to complete a survey and share what motivates them on political and personal levels. Ask the candidates in your area to fill out the survey.

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All candidates for Nevada State Assembly District 2 complete Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey

All three of the candidates running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Nevada State Assembly District 2 — incumbent Heidi Kasama (R), Nick Christenson (D), and Jason Bednarz (L) — completed Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey. These survey responses allow voters to hear directly from candidates about what motivates them to run for office.

Eighty-eight of the country’s 99 state legislative chambers will hold regularly scheduled elections in 2022. The Democratic Party controls both chambers of Nevada’s state legislature. Nevada is one of 14 states with a Democratic trifecta.

Here are excerpts from candidates’ responses to the question: What are the main points you want voters to remember about your goals for your time in office?

Kasam:       

  • “To support the our small business owners, and all business owners to create a vibrant and active economy.”
  • “Our schools rank near the bottom nationally so I support our new per pupil funding for transparency and accountability. I also favor changes to our current school boards.”
  • “We have an alarming lack of health care workers in our state and I want to support policies that incentivize growth of health care professionals.”

Christenson:           

  • “We need to move Las Vegas along a path to long term sustainability.”
  • “We are facing additional crises in several key areas, including housing, education, and health care. We need to move aggressively and creatively to address these.”
  • “We need to continue to diversify the valley’s economy. We have abundant opportunities to promote Las Vegas as a center for technology, clean energy, and outdoor recreation as well as in other fields.”

Bednarz:       

  • “Get the government out of our lives!”
  • “End the wars.”
  • “End the FED.”

Click on candidates’ profile pages below to read their full responses to this and other questions.

We ask all federal, state, and local candidates with profiles on Ballotpedia to complete a survey and share what motivates them on political and personal levels. Ask the candidates in your area to fill out the survey.

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All candidates for Wake County Board of Commissioners District 3 in North Carolina complete Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey

Both of the candidates running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Wake County Board of Commissioners District 3 in North Carolina — Cheryl Stallings (D) and Irina Comer (R) — completed Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey. These survey responses allow voters to hear directly from candidates about what motivates them to run for office.

The county commission functions as the county’s primary legislative and policy-making body. County commissioners are tasked with approving the annual budget and setting the property tax rate, enacting ordinances, and regulating zoning and land use. Wake County has seven commissioners who are elected by district. 

Here are excerpts from candidates’ responses to the question: What are the main points you want voters to remember about your goals for your time in office?

Stallings:           

  • “A healthy and sustainable economy for the people of Wake County. This incudes continued work in Economic Developement as we work to bring good jobs for diverse skill sets throughout the County.”
  • “A healthy and sustainable community for all. This includes working to support a robust system of public schools, public health and mental health services, housing affordability, and safe communities.”
  • “A healthy and sustainable environment for all. This includes staying on track with the County’s renewable energy goals; continued work in preserving and maintaining our open spaces/green spaces, parks/greenways, and family farms; and staying on track with our long range public transportation goals (which include expanded bus services, bus rapid transit, and commuter rail).”

Comer:

  • “Lower taxes. The current Commissioners aim to maximize revenue through taxes and then look for things to spend it on. That approach leads to inefficient government services and a very high tax burden for working families.”
  • “School choice. The Wake County Public School System used to be one of the envies of the country. However, enrollment continues to decline and quality continues to suffer. I believe public education needs competition like any other venture.”
  • “Public safety. Wake County residents deserve to live and work in a community that is safe for them and their families. While I believe firmly in limited government, I also believe that public safety is a core responsibility of county government through which order is enforced and individual rights are respected.”

Click on candidates’ profile pages below to read their full responses to this and other questions.

We ask all federal, state, and local candidates with profiles on Ballotpedia to complete a survey and share what motivates them on political and personal levels. Ask the candidates in your area to fill out the survey.

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All candidates for Wake County School Board District 1 in North Carolina complete Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey

Both of the candidates running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Wake County School Board District 1 in North Carolina — Cheryl Caulfield andBen Clapsaddle — completed Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey. These survey responses allow voters to hear directly from candidates about what motivates them to run for office.

According to the Wake County county public school system website, the school board is made up of nine members who “set policy for the school system implemented by the superintendent and administrative staff. The board also adopts an annual budget proposal that includes its request for local funding from the Wake County Board of Commissioners as well as its plan for using state and federal funds.”

Here are excerpts from candidates’ responses to the question: What areas of public policy are you personally passionate about?

Caulfield:        

  • “Teachers need our support. That starts with understanding the real issues, what they need and how to get it. First, we need to listen to our teachers. We pay $100,000’s to consultants, yet teachers are our front-line, and they know what works in the classroom.”
  • “WCPSS needs to focus on our learning loss recovery, and get back to basics; remove the politics in the classroom, and focus on reading, writing, and arithmetic.”
  • “Fiscal responsibility is imperative. We budget for million of dollars on textbooks, but our children do not have textbooks. While our superintendent is the highest paid in the nation, our teachers sit at the low end of the national pay.”

Clapsaddle:

  • “Supporting Teachers and Staff: I will always respect the concerns of our educators, teaching assistants, specialists, support staff, and administrators. They are professionals and deserve a strong support system, continuing professional development, and competitive pay.”
  • “Parental Involvement and Partnership: I want to partner with parents to make sure their needs and concerns are heard and addressed. I believe a school system works best when parents are involved in the policies concerning their children.”
  • “Fair Budgeting I believe in being fiscally responsible, with an openness towards community concerns, and effective resourcing for all Wake County Public Schools.”

Click on candidates’ profile pages below to read their full responses to this and other questions.

We ask all federal, state, and local candidates with profiles on Ballotpedia to complete a survey and share what motivates them on political and personal levels. Ask the candidates in your area to fill out the survey.

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All candidates for Montana State Senate District 42 complete Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey

Both of the candidates running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Montana State Senate District 42 — Mary Anne Dunwell (D) and Matt Olson (R) — completed Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey. These survey responses allow voters to hear directly from candidates about what motivates them to run for office. 

Eighty-eight of the country’s 99 state legislative chambers will hold regularly scheduled elections in 2022. The Republican Party controls both chambers of Montana’s state legislature. Montana is one of 23 states with a Republican trifecta.

Here are excerpts from candidates’ responses to the question: What are the main points you want voters to remember about your goals for your time in office? 

Dunwell:

  • “I’m a pro-choice candidate with experienced service leadership for public benefit, not my personal gain.”
  • “I have a strong background in revenue policy and continue to promote and vote for a fairer tax system. We must stop giving unfair tax breaks to the wealthy and big corporations at the expense of hard-working Montanans and small businesses.”
  • “My job is to serve you, whether you vote for me or not. When people ask me if I’m a Democrat or Republican, I reply that I’m a fellow Montanan with integrity, courage, and compassion, and the Democratic candidate for SD 42.”

Olson:   

  • “I am honest and have integrity . I WILL NOT make promises just to get elected. I will lead by example by studying issues to the best of my ability . I will show up to work.”
  • “I will uphold our Montana and United States constitution. Our personal rights and freedoms must be protected.”
  • “I believe in fiscal responsibility. We cannot continue to spend borrowed money. That is why it is so important to get team members back to work and provide an environment where business can thrive. We are only able to provide programs from tax revenue. If we cannot earn it, we should spend it.”

Click on the candidates’ profile pages below to read their full responses to this and other questions.

We ask all federal, state, and local candidates with profiles on Ballotpedia to complete a survey and share what motivates them on political and personal levels. Ask the candidates in your area to fill out the survey.

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All candidates for Guilford County Schools school board District 6 in North Carolina complete Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey

Both of the candidates running in the November 8, 2022, general election for Guilford County Schools school board District 6 in North Carolina— incumbent Khem Irby (D) and Tim Andrew (R) — completed Ballotpedia’s Candidate Connection survey. These survey responses allow voters to hear directly from candidates about what motivates them to run for office. 

The Guilford County Schools Board of Education consists of nine members elected to four-year terms. Eight members are elected by district and one member is elected at large. According to the Guilford County Schools website, the board members “establish policies that govern our school system, including its curriculum, facilities, financial resources and personnel.“

Here are excerpts from candidates’ responses to the question: What areas of public policy are you personally passionate about? 

Irby:

“I am personally passionate about being able to provide the best possible education with the resources that are given to us. I am committed to working with and advocating along side my colleagues for a greater investment for public good of education. Our policies must show children that we want them to be successful and that we respect and support educators for being the experts in a successful educational system.”

Andrew:                   

“Increasing student proficiency and preparing our graduates to compete in our modern economy. Guilford County is on the cusp of great economic development, and we need to prepare our students to take advantage of the opportunities that are here.”

Click on the candidates’ profile pages below to read their full responses to this and other questions.

We ask all federal, state, and local candidates with profiles on Ballotpedia to complete a survey and share what motivates them on political and personal levels. Ask the candidates in your area to fill out the survey.

Additional reading: