Wisconsin will vote on Marsy’s Law amendment and other local measures on April 7

Wisconsin will be the fourteenth state to vote on a Marsy’s Law amendment on April 7. The amendment would add 14 additional rights to the existing list of crime victims’ rights in section 9m of Article I of the state Constitution. The additional enumerated rights include a right to privacy; a right to the protection of information; a right to be present at all criminal proceedings and hearings; a right to reasonable protection from the alleged criminal; a right to be notified of the release, escape, or death of the alleged criminal in a timely manner; a right to speak in any hearing related to the rights of the victim; a right to submit information about the case to authorities; a right to refuse an interview, deposition, or other discovery request made by the alleged criminal; and a right to be informed of all rights and protections granted by the constitutional amendment and related laws.

Marsy’s Law for Wisconsin is leading the campaign in support of the ballot measure. As of February 10, 2020, the committee reported receiving over $500,000 in loans from Marsy’s Law for All, the national foundation that has funded 13 statewide Marsy’s Law ballot measure campaigns. It was founded in 2009 by Henry Nicholas, the co-founder of Broadcom Corp. Nicholas was the sponsor of the first Marsy’s Law, which was on the ballot in California as Proposition 9 in 2008. The legislation is named after Henry Nicholas’ sister Marsy Nicholas, who was murdered by her ex-boyfriend in 1983. All 13 campaigns received majority voter approval; however, two of those amendments were overturned in Montana and Kentucky. The 2019 election results in Pennsylvania have not been certified because of a pending court case regarding the constitutionality of the amendment.

Sen. Van Wanggaard (R-21), a legislative sponsor of the amendment, said, “Crime victims should have a voice in the criminal justice process. … Marsy’s Law will help level the legal playing field while still preserving a fair justice system.” The ACLU of Wisconsin opposes the measure. In legislative testimony, the ACLU said, “Victim’s rights cannot be equated to the rights of the accused because they serve very different roles. Defendants’ rights are in the constitution because they are rights against the state, not because they are valued more by society than are those of victims.”

From 2006 to 2019, a total of five legislatively referred constitutional amendments appeared on Wisconsin ballots. All but one were approved.

Ballotpedia is also covering two local ballot measures in Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Schools voters will decide on a referendum that would incrementally increase its annual revenue limit by a total of $87 million over four years and maintain that level thereafter with an estimated property tax of $1,118 per $100,000 of assessed property value (an increase of $160). The 1993-1994 school year was the first year Wisconsin enforced school revenue limits across the state. A revenue limit is the maximum amount of revenue the district is allowed to raise via property taxes according to state law. In 2018, 157 school districts placed similar referendums on Wisconsin ballots, and 90 percent passed.

Milwaukee County voters will be voting on a nonbinding advisory question regarding redistricting procedures in Wisconsin. Support for the question advises the Wisconsin State Legislature to create a nonpartisan redistricting plan for state legislative and congressional boundaries. Six other towns and six other counties in Wisconsin are featuring similar nonbinding redistricting questions on ballots in April.

The deadline for online voter registration was extended to March 30 by a district court ruling. The deadline to request an absentee ballot is April 2. Wisconsin allows same-day voter registration. All polls are open from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. Central Time on election day.

California ballot initiative campaigns are in the final weeks of their signature drives and face the effects of coronavirus

California is under a shelter-in-place order due to the coronavirus pandemic, but several ballot initiative campaigns are in the final days or weeks of their signature drives. As of March 23, four citizen-initiated measures have qualified to appear on the ballot in November. An additional nine ballot initiative could receive enough signatures to appear on the ballot.

The deadline for signature verification is June 25, 2020. However, the process of verifying signatures can take multiple months. Secretary of State Alex Padilla (D) recommends that campaigns file signatures no later than April 21. Campaigns that file signatures after the deadline can still have their proposals appear on the ballot for November 8, 2022.

Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) has directed residents to remain at home, except as needed for food, medicine, and other services deemed essential, due to the pandemic. The California Department of Health has advised that non-essential gatherings be postponed or canceled, and the CDC is recommending that people maintain distance between each other. Jamie Court, president of Consumer Watchdog, stated, “We were getting 70,000 signatures a week until a couple of weeks ago, when it almost stopped.” According to Fred Kimball, owner of the signature-gathering firm Kimball Petition Management, “We’re all flying by the seat of our pants. No one has ever seen this.”

Campaigns behind the following nine citizen-initiated measures are seeking a place for their proposals on the general election ballot. Coronavirus, however, could have the effect of limiting the number of signatures that an individual petitioner can collect, especially for campaigns that didn’t launch until January 2020.

* Property Tax Transfers and Exemptions Initiative (#19-0003): The campaign Homeownership for Families and Tax Savings for Seniors filed 1.43 million signatures on March 4. At least 997,139 signatures need to be valid. The ballot measure would change how tax assessments are transferred between properties for eligible homebuyers and address resetting tax assessments to fair market value on inherited properties and when corporations and other entities acquire control of properties. Homeownership for Families and Tax Savings for Seniors, which is associated with the California Association of Realtors, has raised $12.08 million.

* Tax on Commercial and Industrial Properties for Education and Local Government Funding Initiative (#19-0008): An earlier version of the citizen-initiated measure has qualified for the ballot, but the campaign Schools and Communities First is seeking to replace the initiative with an amended version. The campaign needs to file at least 997,139 valid signatures. Schools and Communities First has raised $17.13 million. Both versions of the ballot initiative would amend the state constitution to require commercial and industrial properties, except those zoned as commercial agriculture, to be taxed based on their market value.

* Consumer Personal Information Law and Agency Initiative (#19-0021): The ballot initiative seeks to expand the provisions of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which was passed in 2018. The campaign Californians for Consumer Privacy raised $3.42 million for this year’s effort. Robin Swanson, a consultant for the campaign, said, “We’re in pretty good shape with the numbers that we have, but are adhering to public health requirements and putting public safety first. Like most ballot measure campaigns out there, we’d always love more signatures, but we’re dealing with a stark new reality while the state is on lockdown.” At least 623,212 valid signatures need to be filed for the ballot measure.

* Stem Cell Research Institute Bond Initiative (#19-0022): Californians for Stem Cell Research, Treatments, and Cures is backing a ballot initiative to issue $5.5 billion in general obligation bonds for the state’s stem cell research institute. Spokesperson Sarah Melbostad said the campaign’s signature drive has been suspended due to the coronavirus pandemic. “In keeping with the governor’s statewide order for non-essential businesses to close and residents to remain at home, we’ve suspended all signature gathering for the time being. … We’re confident that we still have time to qualify and plan to proceed accordingly,” said Melbostad. Proponents have raised $5.28 million. The campaign needs to collect at least 623,212 valid signatures.

* Dialysis Clinic Requirements and Consent to Close Initiative (#19-0025): Californians for Kidney Dialysis Patient Protection, which backed a defeated dialysis-related initiative in 2018, has raised $5.38 million for the new effort. The campaign needs at least 623,212 valid signatures.

* App-Based Drivers Regulations Initiative (#19-0026): With $110.58 million, Protect App-Based Drivers and Services has collected over 1 million signatures, of which 623,212 need to be valid. The campaign has the support of Uber, Lyft, Doordash, Instacart, and Postmates. The ballot measure would consider app-based drivers to be independent contractors and enact several wage and labor policies that would affect app-based drivers and companies. Spokesperson Stacy Wells said, “We were really lucky. We got our signatures in fast and were able to get off the streets in seven weeks.”

* Packaging Waste Reduction Regulations Initiative (#19-0028): The ballot measure would require CalRecycle, in consultation with other agencies, to adopt regulations that reduce the use of product packaging, single-use packaging, and single-use dishes and utensils. The campaign Clean Coasts, Clean Water, Clean Streets has raised $3.26 million. At least 623,212 valid signatures need to be collected.

*Legalize Sports Betting on American Indian Lands Initiative (#19-0029): The Coalition to Authorize Regulated Sports Wagering, with the support of several tribal governments, has raised $7.5 million for a ballot measure to legalize sports betting at American Indian gaming casinos and licensed racetracks. The effort to collect 997,139 valid signatures began on January 21, 2020. “We are at nearly 1 million signatures and were on a trajectory to reach our goal well ahead of the deadline before the unprecedented orders around COVID-19,” said Jacob Mejia, a spokesperson for the campaign. He added, “The health and well-being of Californians is foremost. Thus, paid signature-gathering efforts have paused for the time being.”

Additional Reading:
2020 ballot measures
Changes to ballot measure campaigns, procedures, and policies in response to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020

New Mexico voters will decide bond package at November ballot that would fund senior citizen facilities, public libraries, and education

A bond package containing three separate bond issues was signed by New Mexico Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) and certified for the ballot on March 11, 2020. The bond package was introduced on January 29, 2020, as Senate Bill 207. To put a bond question before voters, a simple majority is required in both the New Mexico State Senate and the New Mexico House of Representatives. A simple majority vote of the statewide electorate is required to approve it. On February 18, 2020, the New Mexico Senate approved the measures 41-0 with one member excused from voting. On February 20, 2020, the New Mexico House of Representatives approved SB 207 in a vote of 66-0 with four members excused.

The bond package will appear as three separate bond questions on November ballots. The New Mexico Senior Citizens Facilities Bond Issue authorizes the sale and issuance of $33 million in bonds for senior citizen facilities improvements. The New Mexico Public Libraries Bond Issue authorizes the sale and issuance of $9.5 million in bonds for public library improvements. The New Mexico Public Education Bond Issue authorizes the sale and issuance of $156.3 million in bonds for public higher education institutions, special public schools, and native tribal schools.

Including the bond questions, there are five legislatively referred measures appearing on New Mexico ballots in November. The other two measures are constitutional amendments. The New Mexico Elections and Terms of Non-Statewide Officeholders Amendment would allow the state legislature to pass laws adjusting the election dates of state or county officeholders and adjust office terms according to those date changes. The New Mexico Appointed Public Regulation Commission Amendment would change the Public Regulation Commission (PRC) from an elected five-member commission to an appointed three-member commission.

New Mexico voters have cast ballots on 25 bond issues, totaling $1.2 billion in value, between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2020. All but one bond issue question—a $155.57 million bond for higher education—was approved. Between 1995 and 2018, voters approved 85.5 percent of the constitutional amendments on the ballot in the state.

Additional reading:
New Mexico Public Libraries Bond Issue (2020) – Text of the Measure
New Mexico Public Libraries Bond Issue (2020)
New Mexico 2020 ballot measures

Maine voters will decide two bond measures, totaling $120 million, on June 9

The election on June 9, 2020, will feature two statewide bond measures in Maine. Legislators passed the bond measures on March 17, and Gov. Janet Mills (D) signed the legislation on March 18. A two-thirds vote was needed in each legislative chamber.

The first bond measure would authorize $105 million in bonds for transportation infrastructure projects, including $90 million for highways, bridges, and MaineDOT’s Municipal Partnership Initiative (MPI) and $15 million for multimodal facilities and equipment related to transit, freight and passenger railroads, aviation, ports, harbors, marine transportation, and active transportation projects. The bond revenue could act as matching funds for an estimated $275 million in federal and other funding.

The second bond measure would authorize $15 million in bonds for the ConnectME Authority to provide funding for high-speed internet infrastructure in unserved and underserved areas. As of March 2020, the ConnectME Authority defined unserved areas as places where broadband service is not offered and underserved areas as places where less than 20 percent of households have access to broadband service. The ConnectME Authority is a state organization that was developed to support the deployment of broadband infrastructure in Maine.

Voters of Maine cast ballots on 39 bond issues, totaling $1.43 billion ($1,427,925,000) in value, from January 1, 2007, through January 1, 2020. Voters approved 38 of 39 bond issues (97.4 percent) during this time. Ten of 39 bonds were related to transportation infrastructure. None were related to internet infrastructure. The last bond measure to be rejected was Question 2 (2012), which would have authorized $11 million in bonds to expand the state’s community college system.

With the Maine State Legislature adjourning on March 17, which was about a month earlier than scheduled, due to the coronavirus pandemic, the two bond measures are likely the only ballot measures that will appear on the June ballot. The latest that a bill could be signed to refer a measure to the June ballot is April 10. If the legislature reconvenes for a special session during the summer months, it could refer additional measures to the November ballot.

Additional Reading:
Maine High Speed Internet Infrastructure Bond Issue (June 2020)
Maine 2020 ballot measures
2020 ballot measures

Recall effort rejected in Bell Gardens, California

An effort to recall Mayor Alejandra Cortez and city council members Pedro Aceituno and Marco Barcena in Bell Gardens, California, was rejected by the city clerk. Recall organizers submitted notices of intent to recall in late February. The notices were rejected on the grounds that they did not include Section 11023 of the Elections Code, which covers the handling of statements of defense.

Recalls of local officials in California start with notices of intent to targeted officials. Each notice requires signatures from 10 city residents, the name of the targeted official, and reasoning for the recall that cannot exceed 200 words. A copy of the notice is delivered to the city clerk, who publishes the notice in at least three public places. Targeted officials have seven days following receipt of their notices to issue statements of defense. A recall petition can be circulated against each targeted official once the notice of intent is published. Recall efforts can be started from the beginning of the process after notices of intent are rejected.

The recall effort against Cortez, Aceituno, and Barcena was initiated in response to issues surrounding real estate development and cannabis businesses.

Aceituno was elected to the city council in a 1999 recall election that saw the removal of Mayor Joaquin Penilla, Mayor Pro Tem David Torres, and Councilman Salvador Rios. Aceituno received the most votes to replace Torres.

In 2019, Ballotpedia covered a total of 151 recall efforts against 230 elected officials. Of the 66 officials whose recalls made it to the ballot, 34 were recalled for a rate of 52%. That was lower than the 63% rate and 57% rate for 2018 and 2017 recalls, respectively.

Additional reading:
Laws governing recall in California
Political recall efforts, 2020

Signature deadline for citizen initiatives in Idaho is May 1; two campaigns have suspended signature drives due to coronavirus

Signatures for citizen initiative petitions in Idaho are due on May 1, 2020. To qualify for the November ballot, 55,057 valid signatures are required.

As of March 19, 2020, three citizen initiatives were cleared to gather signatures targeting the 2020 ballot in Idaho.

The Idaho Minimum Wage Increase Initiative was designed to increase the minimum wage in Idaho to $12 per hour by June 2024. Sponsors of the measure, Idahoans for a Fair Wage, announced on March 17 that they were suspending their signature drive. The group reported having collected more than 32,000 signatures.

The Idaho Tax Increases for Education Funding Initiative was designed to increase the income tax rate for individuals with incomes above $250,000 and increase the corporate income tax rate to fund education. Reclaim Idaho, sponsors of the measure, announced on March 18, 2020, that they were suspending their signature drive due to the coronavirus pandemic. As of March 2020, Reclaim Idaho reported having collected more than half of the required signatures.

The Idaho Medical Marijuana Initiative was designed to create a medical marijuana program in Idaho. Sponsors of the measure, Idaho Cannabis Coalition/Legalize Idaho, had planned a tour—called the “Educate and Legalize Idaho” tour—to collect signatures for the measure, but announced that the tour would be postponed until further notice due to the coronavirus pandemic. The group has not announced a signature drive suspension.

On March 18, Governor of Idaho Brad Little (R) announced that Idaho was adopting the latest guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the White House, urging Idahoans to avoid social gatherings of more than 10 people.

Ballotpedia is tracking changes to ballot measure campaign activities, elections, procedures, and policies made in response to the coronavirus pandemic. Ballotpedia is also tracking changes to election dates and procedures; federal, state and local responses; diagnosed or quarantined officials; school closures; and court closures.

One measure is certified to appear on the 2020 ballot in Idaho. The constitutional amendment, referred to the ballot by the state legislature, would remove language in the state constitution that allows the legislature to have between 30 and 35 legislative districts and, instead, require the legislature to consist of 35 districts. Currently, the Idaho Constitution provides that the state may have between 30 and 35 state legislative districts, as provided by statute.

From 1996 to 2018, 36 measures were on the ballot in Idaho, of which, 72% (26 of 36) were approved and 28% (10 of 36) were defeated.

Additional reading:
Federal, state, and local government policy changes in response to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020
Ballot measure petition deadlines and requirements, 2020
Ballot initiatives filed for the 2020 ballot

A preview of local charter amendments, school bonds, and taxes that were scheduled for the March 17 ballot in Ohio

Voters in Cleveland, Columbus, Toledo, and Hamilton County were scheduled to decide eight local ballot measures on March 17, 2020.

On March 16, 2020, Ohio Governor Mark DeWine announced that polls would be closed on March 17, 2020, by the order of the state department of health due to the coronavirus. In-person voting was postponed to June 2.

Three charter amendments—Issues 5, 6, and 7—are on Cleveland ballots. Issue 5 would amend the city charter to allow votes to be counted using Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) Systems instead of manual ballot tabulation. DRE systems employ computers that record votes directly into the computers’ memory.

Issue 6 would amend the city charter to limit the annual salary increase of city council members to the salary increase percentage of a majority of city recognized unions. In 2018, the Cleveland City Council received a raise of 4% and earned on average $83,370.

Issue 7 would amend the city charter to allow the first city council meeting in January to be held on the first business day if the first Monday is on a legal holiday.

Cleveland Issues 3 and 4, which concerned reducing the size and salary of the city council, were withdrawn in February by supporters. They will still appear on ballots, but votes for the measures will not be counted.

In Columbus, voters will decide on Columbus State Community College Issue 21, which would authorize the college to issue $300 million in bonds and require an average tax rate of $65 per $100,000 in assessed value. In terms of market value, the average annual tax to repay the bonds was estimated at $22.75 per $100,000 of market value.

Certain voters in Columbus will also decide South Western City School District Issue 20, which would renew a property tax at the rate of $100 per $100,000 of assessed property value to help fund Southwest Public Libraries.

Hamilton County Issue 7 would impose a 0.8% sales tax for 25 years to raise revenue for infrastructure improvements and the Metro transportation system operations.

In Toledo, voters will decide Issue 1, which would authorize the city to increase the local income tax from 2.25% to 2.75% for 10 years beginning July 1, 2020, through December 31, 2030.

Ballotpedia covers local ballot measures on the ballot for voters within the top 100 largest cities in the U.S. Ballotpedia also covers all local measures in California and all statewide ballot measures.

Additional reading:

Utah residents set to vote on seven constitutional amendments in November

The Utah Legislature passed three constitutional amendments on Wednesday, bringing the total amendments set to appear on the Utah 2020 ballot to seven. The 2020 legislative session was set to adjourn on Thursday, March 12, 2020. The Legislature also referred four amendments to the ballot during the 2019 legislative session.

Below are summaries of the constitutional amendments set to appear on the 2020 ballot in Utah.

Amendments from 2020 session:

Senate Joint Resolution 3, Legislative Session Start Date Amendment: allows the state legislature to set the January legislative session start date in state statute rather than constitutionally requiring the legislative session to begin on the fourth Monday in January

House Joint Resolution 15, Right to Hunt and Fish Amendment: establishes a state constitutional right to hunt and fish for the people of Utah

Senate Joint Resolution 9, Use Income and Property Tax Revenue to Support Children and Individuals with Disabilities Amendment: allows the Utah State Legislature to use revenue from income taxes and intangible property taxes to support children and individuals with a disability, rather than continuing to limit such tax revenue to support public education and higher education

Amendments from 2019 session:

House Joint Resolution 3, Municipal Water Resources Amendment: specifies the circumstances under which a municipality may commit water resources, supply water outside its boundary, or exchange water resources; revises provisions surrounding municipal water rights

House Joint Resolution 4, Legislator Qualifications Amendment: specifies that certain qualifications of a legislator—such as age— apply as of the time of election or appointment rather than the time a legislator assumes office

House Joint Resolution 8, Remove Slavery as Punishment for a Crime from Constitution Amendment: removes language from the Utah Constitution that allows the use of slavery and involuntary servitude as criminal punishments

Senate Joint Resolution 7, Gender-Neutral Constitutional Language Amendment: removes gendered language in the Utah Constitution and replaces it with gender-neutral language

A total of 53 measures appeared on the statewide ballot in Utah between 1996 and 2018. From 1996 to 2018, an average of four measures appeared on the ballot for even-year elections in Utah, of which 86.5% were approved by voters. The number of measures appearing on even-year statewide ballots between 1996 and 2018 ranged from one to seven.

Virginians to decide constitutional amendment transferring redistricting powers from legislature to commission

On March 5, the Virginia House of Delegates voted 54-46 to approve a resolution placing a redistricting-related constitutional amendment on the ballot for November 3, 2020. The ballot measure would transfer the power to draw the state’s congressional and legislative districts from the state legislature to a 16-member redistricting commission composed of eight state legislators and eight citizens.

In Virginia, a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment needs to be passed in two successive sessions of the Virginia General Assembly. In 2019, the Republican-controlled House and Senate passed a resolution. Democrats won control of both legislative chambers in November 2019. In 2020, the Democratic-controlled Senate passed the resolution 38-2. The proposal received more opposition in the state House, where 46 Democrats opposed it. Nine House Democrats and all 45 Republicans voted to place the constitutional amendment on this year’s ballot. Before the final vote on March 5, Del. Marcus Simon (D-53) offered a substitute for SJR 18. The substitute resolution was rejected 47-53. Substitute SJR 18 would have created a redistricting commission composed of 11 commissioners “who are, as a whole, representative of the racial, gender, political, and geographic diversity of the Commonwealth.” Approval of Substitute SJR 18 would have restarted the process of amending the Virginia Constitution, meaning an amendment could appear on the 2022 ballot at the earliest.

Under the constitutional amendment that voters will decide in November, the commission would draw the maps, and the General Assembly would vote to pass or reject the maps. The General Assembly would be prohibited from amending the maps. If the General Assembly rejected a map, the redistricting commission would design a new map. If the map was rejected again, the Virginia Supreme Court would establish the districts.

Maps would also require approval by 12 of 16 (75 percent) commissioners, including six of eight legislators and six of eight citizens. Leaders of the legislature’s two-largest political parties would select members to serve on the commission. Therefore, based on the current membership, the commission’s legislative members would include two Senate Democrats, two Senate Republicans, two House Democrats, and two House Republicans. The commission’s eight citizen members would be recommended by legislative leaders and selected by a committee of five retired circuit court judges.

The constitutional amendment is the first ballot measure certified for 2020 that is related to redistricting. Measures could also be on the ballot in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, and Oregon. In 2018, five states—Colorado, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, and Utah—voted on initiatives to change redistricting procedures or establish redistricting commissions, and all of them were approved by voters.

With the Virginia General Assembly adjourning on March 8, no additional constitutional amendments can be referred to the 2020 general election ballot unless a special session is held. Besides the redistricting amendment, voters will also decide an amendment that would create a property tax exemption on vehicles for veterans.

Additional reading:

Voters in South Dakota to decide on legalizing sports betting in Deadwood this fall

South Dakota legislators passed Senate Joint Resolution 501 on March 3, certifying it for the November 2020 ballot.

The amendment would legalize sports betting (wagering on the outcome of athletic sporting events) within the city limits of Deadwood, South Dakota. Currently, in Deadwood— a resort and gaming town— blackjack, craps, keno, poker, roulette, and slot machines are legalized. Like other authorized forms of gambling within the city, net municipal proceeds would be dedicated to the historic restoration and preservation of Deadwood.

Senate Joint Resolution 501 was passed in the Senate on February 11, 2020, in a vote of 24-10, with one excused. Of the 30 Republicans in the Senate, 20 voted in favor, nine voted against, and one was excused. Among the five Senate Democrats, four Democrats voted in favor and one voted against. It was sent to the state House where it passed on March 3, 2020, by a vote of 36-27 with seven representatives excused. Among Democrats, seven were in favor and three were against. Among Republicans, 29 were in favor and 24 were against.

Sports betting was banned at the federal level under the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) until a 2018 United States Supreme Court decision, Murphy v. NCAA, overturned that federal ban and allowed states to legalize sports betting. As of March 2020, 13 states had legalized sports betting. Voters in Arkansas approved legalizing sports betting through Issue 4 in 2018. Voters in Colorado approved sports betting through Proposition DD in 2019. In certain other states, legislative bills to legalize sports betting have been introduced.

Two other ballot measures are certified to appear on the November ballot in South Dakota. Initiated Measure 26 would provide for a medical marijuana program in South Dakota. Constitutional Amendment A would legalize recreational use of marijuana and require the legislature to pass laws providing for the use of medical marijuana and the sale of hemp by April 1, 2022.

A total of 74 measures appeared on the statewide ballot in South Dakota from 1996 through 2018, of which, about 39% (29 of 74) were approved and about 61% (45 of 74) were defeated.

Additional reading: